Imperialism and Entering the World Stage

Imperialism and
Entering the
World Stage
A.P. U.S. History
Mr. Krueger
Towards Empire
Expansion of 1890’s differed from previous
American expansions:
Economics – Desire for new markets and raw
Military – Desire for naval bases and coaling
Ideological – Desire to bring Christianity, westernstyle culture, and democracy to other people
Isolationism declines, and internationalism
rose because of the increase in technology.
Imperialism was not popular at the onset of
the 1870’s, but would eventually come to the
forefront of American Politics.
Reasons for Expansion
End of the Frontier – diminishing opportunities at
New Markets
Trade – Exports
Nationalism leads to Imperialism
Intellectuals based expansion on ideas from Charles
Darwin – the fit would triumph.
Biogenic Law – German biologist Ernst Haeckel –
Advanced Races would conquer and protect Primitive
Sense of Anglo – Saxon superiority and natural selection
Foreign Policy
1870 - $395 million
1890 - $858 million
1900 - $1.4 billion
Still based on Monroe Doctrine
William Henry Seward wanted to expand throughout the
Western Hemisphere
Focus on Latin America and Hawaii
Hawaii and Samoa
Naval Bases and Hawaiian Sugar
McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the sugar production in
Hawaii – gave American producers two-cents a
pound on Hawaiian exports.
Queen Liliuokalani declared a new constitution to
help her people and many natives were given
American residents revolted and asked the U.S. for
help – the marines were sent. 3 days later the
Queen surrendered. Hawaii was annexed to the
Debates about the annexation – U.S. to “civilize
and Christianize” the Hawaiians
War with Spain
Shaped all levels of American Society
Nationalism and Identity
North and South Reconciled after Civil War
Emerged as a world power
Created an Empire
Left some doubt…
Cuba was a remnant of Spain’s great empire
– rebels fought against Spanish control
With the depression, a revolt broke out and
many tried to sway American opinion to help
the Cuban rebels.
Rebels used a hit and run, and scorched earth
Spain tried to systematically wipe them out.
When this did not work, Spain sent General
Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau – he used
“reconcentration” camps – thousands enter,
1/3rd die
Yellow Journalism
 Yellow
Journalism – sensationalist
reporting, named after the “Yellow Kid,” a
popular comic strip that was used
William Randolph Hearst - Published the
New York Journal
Joseph Pulitzer – Published the New York
Both Supported the Cuban Rebels and
used biased sources to sell more papers
Causes for War
American anger over the treatment of
The outrage over the de Lome Letter, a letter
written by Enrique Dupuy, Spain’s minister to
the United States.
The sinking of the Maine off of Havana Harbor
– February 15, 1898
Blew up and killed 260 soldiers – Spain took the
Teller Amendment – promise that the U.S. had
no intention of annexing Cuba.
Mechanics of the War
The first time the United States fought as one
after the Civil War…
North and South together with African
American troops
Many Volunteers join because of Nationalism
Troops were poorly supplied, but the war did
not last long…
Road to War…1898
 The
Philippines – the start of the war
Spain held the islands since 1500
 The
United States Navy was led by
Commodore George Dewey
 The
United States had the advantage of
modern technology, iron and steel hulls,
and superior weapons.
Quickly overwhelmed the Spanish.
 No
American Casualties, 400 Spanish died
War in the Philippines
 Dewey
began to plan an attack on the
capital of Manila
 Aided
by Emilio Aguinaldo – Leader of a
rebel army of Filipino patriots
 Helped
 Spanish
Americans capture Manila
Forces in the Philippines
surrendered on August 14, 1898.
The War moves to Cuba
 The
Rough Riders – Volunteer Calvary
lead by Theodore Roosevelt. Composed
of college athletes, cowboys, ranchers,
and miners.
 Battle
of San Juan Hill
 Battle
of Santiago – U.S. Victory – July 3,
 U.S.
Victory – Annexation of the
Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.
 The
war cost the United States $250 Million
and about 2,000 soldiers died, not from
combat but from YELLOW FEVER.
 Creation
of an Imperialist United States
and a presence on the World Stage.
Progressivism – A Review in
 Progressivism
– movement started to
address the problems created by
 Muckrakers
– journalists who
exposed the filth of society
Jacob Riis – “How the Other
Half Lives”
Ida Tarbell – Attack on
Standard Oil
Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle”
“Fighting Bob” La Follette
Housing Reforms
Work reforms
Tenement Act of 1901
Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
Government Reforms
Robert La Follette
Wisconsin Idea:
policy to apply the expertise of the state's
university to social legislation that benefited all
the state's citizens
It led to classic programs such as regulation of
utilities, workers' compensation, tax reform, and
university extension services
T.R. – President Roosevelt
Bully Pulpit – a powerful platform to publicize
important issues and seek support for his
Square Deal
Regulating Big Business and Promoting
Preserving the Natural Resources
John Muir – Naturalist, leave Nature alone
Gifford Pinchot - Conservationist, use wisely
President Wilson
The New Freedom – platform that called for
tariff reductions, banking reforms, and
stronger anti-trust legislations.
Graduated Income tax – the more $$ you
have, the more taxes you pay.
Federal Reserve Act – created a central fund
from which banks could borrow to prevent
collapse during a financial panic.
The 19th Amendment
 Reformers
Passed Progressive laws to help the U.S.
These limited big business
Gave rights to the workers
 Both
aided in civil rights, and both had
controversial incidents
Brownsville Incident – Roosevelt signed
papers discharging 167 falsely accused
African American soldiers.
Wilson opposed federal anti-lynching laws,
and allowed cabinet members to
segregate their offices.