Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have
Mixed Success
The English Plan Colonies
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Colonies would provide a market for English exports
Source or raw material
Increase trade
Build up gold supply
Mercantilism – state controls trade and attempts to
transfer wealth from colonies to parent country
Reasons for going to America
 Lack of economic opportunity in England
 Gold mines
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Religious persecution
Financing a Colony
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Joint-Stock Company
 Backed by investors – people put money in to earn profits
 Investor got shares
 Split any profits
 Divided any losses
Virginia Company of London, Virginia Company of
Plymouth, (later Massachusetts Bay Company and Dutch West
Indies Company)
Charter
 Written contract
 Issued by government
 Gave the holder right to establish colony
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Who – Who were among the settlers at
Sagadahoc?
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Who was their leader?
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George Popham
What happened to the colonists at Roanoke?
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Convicts
Cut off from food supply by Native Americans – sent back
to England
What happened to the colony at Sagadahoc?
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Arguments, harsh winter, fights with Native Americans,
food shortages, forced to return to England
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What was the House of Burgesses?
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What was Bacon’s Rebellion?
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Marched into Jamestown, took control of House of
Burgesses and burned Jamestown to the ground.
When was Jamestown settled?
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Elected representatives that would meet once a year
– first representative assembly in American
Colonies
1607
When did the starving time end?
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Starving time ended in 1610
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Why did the settlers go to Jamestown?
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Why didn’t the settlers get along with their
neighbors?
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Because they wanted more and more of their land
Why did Jamestown nearly fail?
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Make money, find gold, new life, greater opportunities
Disease, unwilling to work, more interested in gold than
work
Why did Bacon’s rebellion occur?
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Opposed William Berkeley
High taxes
Favoritism toward large plantation owners
Bacon wanted war with Native Americans to seize land for
tobacco
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Where was Roanoke?
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Where was Sagadahoc?
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Maine – mouth of Kennebec River
Where was Jamestown?
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Island off of North Carolina
In Virginia, on a small peninsula on James River
How was Jamestown saved from failure?
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John Smith took over and forced colonists to work –
tobacco provided money to build the colony.
Sect. 2 – New England Colonies
Causes of
Conflict
Result of Conflict
King James vs.
Pilgrims
Pilgrims a
separatist group.
King attacked
them for rejecting
England’s Official
church.
Fled to Holland
first. Approached
Virginia Comp. To
arrange to settle in
America
Puritans vs.
Church of
England
Religious beliefs
Wanted church of
England to
“purify” its
practices
Bad treatment by
King. Left England
to form colonies in
America .Great
Migration
Causes of
Conflict
Result of
Conflict
Puritan leaders
vs. Roger
Williams
Opposed forced
attendance at
church. Opposed
taking Native
lands by force
Left and started
Rhode Island
Puritan leaders
vs. Anne
Hutchinson
Believed person Banished and fled
could worship
to Rhode Island
God without help
of church,
minister or Bible
Quakers vs.
Massachusetts
Commonwealth
Causes of
Conflict
Result of Conflict
Believed that
each person could
know God
directly through
an inner light –
no minister or
bible needed.
Treat Native
Americans fairly
Called Quakers.
Whipped,
imprisoned or
hung. .Left for
Rhode Island
King Philip’s
War
Causes of
Conflict
Americans – land
belonged to
person or group.
Native Americans
– land belonged
to everyone.
Religion.
Increased
population of
Europeans
Result of
Conflict
Colonial victory.
Destruction of 12
colonial villages600 military 3000 Native
Americans killed.
King Philip
killed500 Native
Americans
enslaved
Salem
Witchcraft
Trials
Causes of
Conflict
Younger
generations –
different religious
view than that of
parents. False
accusations.
Witch hunts
Result of
Conflict
Arrests, trials and
execution for
witchcraft.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
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Vowed to obey laws agreed upon for
the good of the colony
Helped establish the idea of selfgovernment and majority rule
PILGRIMS LAND
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How did Squanto and Samoset help the
Pilgrims?
Interpreter between Pilgrims and Chief
Massasoit
 Negotiated a peace treaty
 Showed them how to plant, hunt and fish
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Describe the First Thanksgiving.
Three day feast
 Represented the peace that existed at the
time between Native Americans and
Pilgrims
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What was the New England Way?
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Congregation – group of people who belonged to the
same church
Set up own town
 Meeting house
 Most important building
 Gathered for town meetings
 A form of self government
 Made laws and other decisions for the
community
 Only male church members could vote or
hold office
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By law all had to attend church services
Sermon provided instruction in New England
Way
 Emphasized duty, godliness, hard work and
honesty
 Dancing and playing games would lead to
laziness
 God requires them to work long and hard at
their vocation
Work ethic contributed to rapid growth and
success of New England Colonies
Depended on Education – laws required that all
children be able to read
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Who founded Connecticut?
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Thomas Hooker
What is the Fundamental Orders of
Connecticut?
 A constitution
 Extended voting rights to non-church
members
 Limited the power of the governor
 Expanded the idea of representative
government
Describe the Beginning of New
Hampshire?
Village near Portsmouth
 John Wheelwright – town of Exeter
 Exeter Compact – based on Mayflower
Compact
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FOUNDING THE MIDDLE AND
SOUTHERN COLONIES
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What attracted Catholics, Quakers and Jews
to these colonies?
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Religious freedom
What economic activities were important in
the Middle Colonies?
Hudson and Delaware river supported shipping
and commerce
 River valleys had rich soil and mild winters
 Conditions favorable for farming and raising
livestock
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What area did New Netherland include?
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Included Hudson river Valley, Long Island, land along
Delaware river
Explain the Patroon system. How did help
attract settlers to New Netherland?
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Patroon system
 Person brought 50 settlers
 Reward – patron received large land grant
 Special privileges in hunting, fishing and fur
trading on land
 Jews, Africans as slaves, indentured servants
and Puritans
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How did the English acquire New
Netherland?
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Peter Stuyvesant – governor
 Attacked New Sweden
 New Sweden surrendered
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Explain how the Duke of York became owners
of New York?
King Charles II wanted Duke to drive Dutch out
of Netherland
 Dutch a threat to England’s trade
 Threat because of expanding settlements and
location
 When Duke’s ships appeared off New
Amsterdam the colony surrendered
 Became a proprietary colony of New York
 Duke was owner
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How did the province of New Jersey
come about?
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Duke of York gave province of New Jersey
to George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley
How did the owners of the New Jersey
colony attract settlers?
Promised freedom of religion
 Large grants of land
 Representative assembly
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How did Wm. Penn receive the land
called Pennsylvania?
Joined the Quakers
 Attacked for his beliefs
 King Charles gave him large piece of
land in America in partial payment to
his family
 Called Pennsylvania – Means “Penns
Woods”
 Created a colony for Quakers
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How did Penn’s religious beliefs affect
the way he governed Pennsylvania?
Quakers
 All people should live in peace and
harmony
 Welcomed different religions and ethnic
groups
 Wanted Native Americans to be treated
fairly
 Policies made Pennsylvania one of the
wealthiest of American Colonies
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How did Delaware come about?
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Granted three lower counties of Delaware
their own Assembly – became Delaware
What attracted settlers to the Southern
Colonies?
Maryland, Carolinas and Georgia
 Soil and climate suitable for crops such
as tobacco, rice and indigo
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Why did Lord Baltimore establish
Maryland?
For Roman Catholics fleeing persecution in
England
 Promised religious freedom to attract more settlers
 Passed Toleration Act
What was Maryland’s economy
based on?
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Economy based on tobacco
 Used up the land
 Had to clear new land every 3-4 years
 Laborers came as servants or slaves
 Few women as settlers
Who were the first settlers to Carolina
and how did they live?
Early settlers build Charles Town –
Charleston
 Cut timber, raised cattle and traded with
Native Americans
 Refuge for Huguenots (French Protestants)
seeking religious freedom
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What changed the economy of
Carolina and how did this lead to the
beginning of slavery?
Needed laborers to grow rice and indigo
 Encouraged to used enslaved Africans
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Sold Native Americans into slavery
 Battle between settlers and Native
Americans over Indian slaves and taking
of land
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In what way did Carolina change after
it became a royal colony?
Battle between settlers and Native
Americans over Indian slaves and taking
of land
 No help from owners so they overthrew
the rule
 Became Royal Colony – governor
appointed by King
 Divided into North and South Carolina
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Why did James Oglethorpe found Georgia?
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Refuge for debtors
How did the English government intent to use the
Georgia colony?
English governor wanted a military outpost against
Spanish Florida and French Louisiana
 Spanish tried to force English out but unsuccessful
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Who settled in Georgia?
English, German, Swiss and Scottish
 All religions welcome
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Why did Oglethorpe lose control and what
happened to the colony?
Oglethorpe set strict rules that upset colonists
 King made a royal colony
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Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have Mixed Success