CHAPTER
2
The American Colonies Emerge
Overview
Time Lines
SECTION
1 Spain’s Empire in the Americas
SECTION
2 An English Settlement at Jamestown
SECTION
3 Puritan New England
SECTION
4 Settlement of the Middle Colonies
Chapter Assessment
Transparencies
CHAPTER
2
The American Colonies Emerge
“I have found a continent more densely
populated and abounding in animals than our
Europe, Asia, and Africa. We may rightly call
this continent the New World.”
Amerigo Vespucci, explorer
THEMES IN CHAPTER 2
Immigration and Migration
Cultural Diversity
Expanding Democracy
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CHAPTER
2
The American Colonies Emerge
What do you know?
• Would you describe your state as an old or
new state? Why?
• Which four states have the oldest histories in
terms of European settlement?
• What factors account for the early settlement
of what are now Florida and New Mexico?
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CHAPTER
2
Time Line
The United States
1521 Hernán Cortés conquers the Aztec Empire.
1565 Spanish settlers establish St. Augustine
in Florida.
1607 John Smith and other English settlers
establish Jamestown.
1619 Ship carrying African laborers arrives at
Jamestown.
1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth.
1630 Puritans found the Massachusetts
Bay Colony.
1676 Bacon’s Rebellion erupts.
1681 William Penn receives charter for
Pennsylvania.
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CHAPTER
2
Time Line
The World
1526 Mughal Empire begins in India.
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada.
1591 Songhai empire falls to Moroccan
invaders.
1629 Charles I of England dismisses
Parliament.
1644 Manchus establish Qing dynasty in China.
1649 Charles I is beheaded; Puritan leader
Oliver Cromwell assumes power in
England.
1660 English monarchy is restored.
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SECTION
1
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
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Learn About
the Spanish conquests of Central and North America.
To Understand
what new and lasting ways of life the Spanish settlers
brought to the Americas.
SECTION
1
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Key Idea
The Spanish gain the first foothold in the
Americas, as they conquer much of Mexico
and what is now the southern part of the
United States.
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SECTION
1
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
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Section 1 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What are some events that relate to Spain’s establishment of
a profitable empire in the Americas?
Cortés conquered
the Aztec
Spain established
a profitable empire
in the Americas
Spain took gold
and silver
from Mexico
settlements established
in Mexico, Florida,
and New Mexico
natives died
from disease
the encomienda
system established
SECTION
1
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Section 1 Assessment
FORMING AN OPINION
Do you agree or disagree with the statement that the Spanish
conquest of the Aztecs, which led to the creation of Mexico,
“was neither a triumph nor a defeat”?
THINK ABOUT
• the actions of the conquistadores
• the effects of disease on native peoples
• the encomienda system
• the mestizo population in Mexico today
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SECTION
1
Spain’s Empire in the Americas
Section 1 Assessment
GENERALIZING
What are three main ideas about Spanish settlement and
exploration north of Mexico and about their interaction with
Native Americans there?
THINK ABOUT
• the explorations of Ponce de Léon and Coronado
• the establishment of St. Augustine and Santa Fe
• the activities of Spanish friars
• Native American acts of resistance
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SECTION
2
An English Settlement at Jamestown
Learn About
the reasons for the English settlement at Jamestown.
To Understand
how this settlement endured an uncertain start and
conflict with Native Americans.
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SECTION
2
An English Settlement at Jamestown
Key Idea
English settlers endure early years of
hardship to establish England’s first
permanent colony in North America.
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SECTION
2
An English Settlement at Jamestown
Section 2 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
What were some of the major developments in the
colonization of Virginia?
1607
Jamestown founded
1609
Starving time began
1618
Headright system
introduced
1624
James I made
Virginia a royal
colony
1675
Fighting between
settlers and
Native Americans
1676
Bacon’s
Rebellion erupts
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SECTION
2
An English Settlement at Jamestown
Section 2 Assessment
ANALYZING
What were the benefits and drawbacks of using indentured
servants for labor in Virginia?
THINK ABOUT
• the labor demands of growing tobacco
• the characteristics and cost of indentured servants
• the causes and consequences of Bacon’s Rebellion
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SECTION
2
An English Settlement at Jamestown
Section 2 Assessment
RECOGNIZING EFFECTS
The success of tobacco farming in Virginia had wide-ranging
effects. Describe the impact on each of these groups: the
Jamestown colonists, indentured servants, the Powhatan, the
planters.
THINK ABOUT
• the early history of the Jamestown settlement
• the headright system and indentured servitude
• Powhatan attacks on colonial villages
• Bacon’s Rebellion
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SECTION
3
Puritan New England
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Learn About
the reasons English Puritans came to North America.
To Understand
the characteristics of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
and how the colonists interacted with Native
Americans.
SECTION
3
Puritan New England
Key Idea
English Puritans settle New England with the
hope of establishing a model society based on
their religious views.
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SECTION
3
Puritan New England
SUMMARIZING
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Section 3 Assessment
3
What were the effects of each of the causes listed below?
CAUSE
EFFECT
Persecution of Puritans in England
Puritan migration to New England
Puritan belief in hard work
Rapid growth and success of Massachusetts
Bay Colony
Roger Williams’s dissenting
beliefs
Founding of new colony based on his
principles
Rapid colonial expansion in New
England
Conflict with Native Americans, including
Pequot War and King Philip’s War
Defeat of King Philip
End of Native American power in southeastern
New England
SECTION
3
Puritan New England
Section 3 Assessment
3
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
Why did Puritan leaders view Anne Hutchinson as a threat to
their society?
THINK ABOUT
• Puritan beliefs
• characteristics of Puritan society
• Hutchinson’s teachings
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SECTION
3
Puritan New England
Section 3 Assessment
INTERPRETING
Imagine you have been called upon to negotiate between the
New England colonists and Native Americans. What would
you tell each side about the other to help them overcome
their misunderstandings?
THINK ABOUT
• the views of the colonists and Native Americans on land
and religion
• the Pequot War and King Philip’s War
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SECTION
4
Settlement of the Middle Colonies
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Learn About
the settlement of New Netherland and Pennsylvania.
To Understand
how these settlements developed into thriving, diverse,
and peaceful colonies.
SECTION
4
Settlement of the Middle Colonies
Key Idea
Different groups settle what will become the
English middle colonies, establishing in the
early years a region of marked diversity,
tolerance, and peaceful relations with Native
Americans.
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SECTION
4
Settlement of the Middle Colonies
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Section 4 Assessment
SUMMARIZING
How do the colonies of New Netherland and Pennsylvania
compare?
BOTH
NEW NETHERLAND
•Founded by the Dutch
•Built on fur trade
•Attracted colonists from
many ethnic groups
•Practiced religious
toleration
•Became a proprietary
colony
•Established good relations
with Native Americans
PENNSYLVANIA
•Shaped by Quaker
ideals
•Avoided a land-owning
aristocracy
SECTION
4
Settlement of the Middle Colonies
Section 4 Assessment
EVALUATING DECISIONS
Both New Netherland and Pennsylvania encouraged settlers
to come from all over western Europe. Was this a good
decision for these colonies?
THINK ABOUT
• the reasons each colony was founded
• the need for each colony to attract settlers
• growth and changes in the new colonies
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SECTION
4
Settlement of the Middle Colonies
Section 4 Assessment
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
How did William Penn succeed in achieving his goals for
Pennsylvania, and how did he fail?
THINK ABOUT
• Penn’s “holy experiment”
• Penn’s actions towards Native Americans
• changes in Pennsylvania after its founding
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Chapter
2
Assessment
1. How did Mexican culture develop out of both Spanish
and Native American elements?
2. How did Native Americans react to Spanish efforts to
establish colonies?
3. Explain how John Rolfe transformed the Virginia
colony.
4. What conditions caused tension and warfare between
settlers and Native Americans in Virginia?
5. What caused Bacon’s Rebellion?
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Chapter
2
Assessment
6. Describe the role of religion in the lives of Puritans
living in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
7. How were the experiences of Roger Williams and Anne
Hutchinson similar and different?
8. What caused conflicts between New England colonists
and Native Americans?
9. Why did New Netherland develop a reputation for
diversity?
10. How did Pennsylvania reflect William Penn’s Quaker
ideals?
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