C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 12
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -ν
•
•
•
Recall that the combination νσ is generally
forbidden in Greek.
Consequently, in the nominative singular the -ς
disappears and the preceding vowel lengthens to
make up for the lost -ς (ο  ω, ε  η).
In the dative plural, the ν disappears instead,
with no compensatory lengthening.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1. 3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
Thus the forms of ἡγεμών, ἡγεμόνος ὁ “leader”
singular
Nom. ἡγεμών
Gen. ἡγεμόνος
Dat. ἡγεμόνι
Acc. ἡγεμόνα
Voc. = nom.
plural
Nom. ἡγεμόνες
Gen. ἡγεμόνων
Dat. ἡγεμόσι
Acc. ἡγεμόνας
Voc. = nom.
nom. sg.: ἡγεμονς  ἡγεμων
dat. pl.: ἡγεμονσι  ἡγεμοσι
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
2. More uses of the article
•
Because the article by itself establishes
attributive position, the noun it agrees with
might be omitted. In such cases, the gender of
the article provides a clue about the missing
noun:
–
–
–
masculine  man, men, people
feminine  woman, women
neuter  thing, things
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
2. More uses of the article
•
Because the article by itself establishes attributive
position, the noun it agrees with might be omitted.
–
–
–
–
–
–
τὰ τῆς πατρίδος “the [things, affairs] of the fatherland”
οἱ τῆς Ἑλλάδος “the [people] of Greece”
ὁ σοφός “the wise [man, person]”
οἱ ἐκεῖ “the [men, people] over there”
αἱ πάλαι “the [women] in the old days”
τὰ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ “the [things] in the house”
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
singular
• εἰμί “I am”
• εἶ “you are”
• ἐστί(ν) “(s)he, it is”
plural
• ἐσμέν “we are”
• ἐστέ “you/y’all are”
• εἰσί(ν) “they are”
present tense indicative active
Except for the 2nd person singular,
all forms are enclitic.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
singular
• ἄπειμι
• ἀπεῖ
• ἄπεστι(ν)
plural
• ἄπεσμεν
• ἄπεστε
• ἄπεισι(ν)
present tense indicative active
In a compound, the enclitic forms
throw their accent back to the prefix.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
4. Conditions
•
A condition consists of two parts:
–
The protasis (πρότασις) = the if-statement, a
subordinate clause.
•
•
–
In Greek, it begins with εἰ “if”
use μή to express “not”
The apodosis (ἀπόδοσις) = the conclusion, thenstatement, the main or independent clause.
•
In Greek, use οὐ to express “not”
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
5. Simple Conditions
•
Simple conditions referring to the past or present
work the same in both Greek and English:
–
(protasis) εἰ ὁ παῖς μὴ ἀγαθός,
•
–
“If the child is not good,
(apodosis) οἰκτείρω τὸν πατέρα.
•
I pity the father.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
5. Simple Conditions
•
Simple conditions referring to the past or present
work the same in both Greek and English:
–
εἰ ὁ παῖς μὴ ἀγαθός, οἰκτείρω τὸν πατέρα.
•
–
“If the child is not good, I pity the father.”
εἰ ὁ στρατηγὸς σοφὸς ἦν, οὐκ ἐπίστευε τῷ
ἡγεμόνι.
•
“If the general was wise, he did not trust his guide.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3rd declension nouns: stems in –ν
More uses of the article
Compounds of εἰμί, ‘be’
Conditions
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Shelmerdine Chapter 11
6. Contrary-to-fact Conditions
•
A contrary-to-fact condition refers to a situation
which does not or did not exist:
–
–
–
If I were rich [but I’m not], I would be happy [but I’m
not].
If it had not rained [but it did], I would have gone out
[but I didn’t].
In Greek, the apodosis of a contrary to fact condition
contains the word ἄν, but never as the first word of the
clause (postpositive).
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
6. Contrary-to-fact Conditions
•
A contrary-to-fact condition refers to a situation
which does not or did not exist:
–
εἰ δοῦλος ἦν, οὐκ εὖ ἂν ἔπραττεν.
•
•
“If he were a slave [but he’s not], he would not be doing
well [but he is].”
Greek uses the imperfect tense to refer to the present time.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
6. Contrary-to-fact Conditions
•
A contrary-to-fact condition refers to a situation
which does not or did not exist:
–
εἰ ὁ στρατηγὸς ἐφύλαξε τὸ στρατόπεδον, οἱ
αἰχμάλωτοι οὐκ ἂν ἔφυγον.
•
•
“If the general had guarded the camp [but he didn’t], the
prisoners or war would not have escaped [but they did].”
Greek uses the aorist tense to refer to past time.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
6. Contrary-to-fact Conditions
•
A contrary-to-fact condition refers to a situation
which does not or did not exist:
–
εἰ οἱ Ἁθηναῖοι μὴ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς Πέρσας ἐκ τῆς
Ἑλλάδος, δοῦλοι νῦν ἂν ἦσαν.
•
•
•
“If the Athenians had not pursued the Persians out of
Greece [but they did], they would now be slaves [but they
aren’t].”
Greek uses the imperfect tense to refer to the present time.
Greek uses the aorist tense to refer to past time.
Sarcophagus with story of Alcestis
Pherae
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ὁ Ἄδμητος, ὃς ἐβασίλευε τῶν Φερῶν, ἦν ὁ τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος
ἀνήρ· ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ ὥρα ἧκεν αὐτῷ ἀποθνῄσκειν, ὁ Ἀπόλλων
ἔλεξεν ὅτι διὰ τὴν πρὶν εὔνοιαν ἐξῆν αὐτῷ μὴ εὐθὺς
ἀποθνῄσκειν, εἴ τις τῶν οἰκείων ἤθελε ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ
ἀποθανεῖν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ὁ Ἄδμητος,
ὃς ἐβασίλευε τῶν Φερῶν, ἦν ὁ τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος ἀνήρ·
ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ ὥρα ἧκεν αὐτῷ ἀποθνῄσκειν,
ὁ Ἀπόλλων ἔλεξεν
ὅτι διὰ τὴν πρὶν εὔνοιαν ἐξῆν αὐτῷ μὴ εὐθὺς ἀποθνῄσκειν,
εἴ τις τῶν οἰκείων ἤθελε ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ἀποθανεῖν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ὁ Ἄδμητος,
ὃς ἐβασίλευε τῶν Φερῶν,
ἦν ὁ τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος ἀνήρ·
ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ ὥρα ἧκεν αὐτῷ ἀποθνῄσκειν,
ὁ Ἀπόλλων ἔλεξεν ὅτι
διὰ τὴν πρὶν εὔνοιαν ἐξῆν αὐτῷ μὴ εὐθὺς ἀποθνῄσκειν,
εἴ τις τῶν οἰκείων ἤθελε ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ ἀποθανεῖν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ἀλλ’ ὁ Ἄδμητος οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν πείθειν οὔτε τὸν πατέρα
οὔτε τὴν μητέρα· καὶ δὴ ἡ Ἄλκηστις μόνη ἤθελε σῴζειν
τὸν ἄνδρα· ἐκέλευσεν οὖν χαίρειν τοὺς τε παῖδας καὶ τὸν
ἄνδρα αὐτόν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ἀλλ’ ὁ Ἄδμητος οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν πείθειν
οὔτε τὸν πατέρα οὔτε τὴν μητέρα·
καὶ δὴ ἡ Ἄλκηστις μόνη ἤθελε σῴζειν τὸν ἄνδρα·
ἐκέλευσεν οὖν χαίρειν
τοὺς τε παῖδας καὶ τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτόν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ἀλλ’ ὁ Ἄδμητος οὐχ οἷός τε ἦν πείθειν
οὔτε τὸν πατέρα οὔτε τὴν μητέρα·
καὶ δὴ ἡ Ἄλκηστις μόνη ἤθελε σῴζειν τὸν ἄνδρα·
ἐκέλευσεν οὖν χαίρειν
τοὺς τε παῖδας καὶ τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτόν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
μετὰ δὲ τὸν τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος θάνατον ὁ Ἡρακλῆς παρῆν
εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
μετὰ δὲ τὸν τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος θάνατον ὁ Ἡρακλῆς παρῆν
εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
μετὰ δὲ τὸν τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος θάνατον ὁ Ἡρακλῆς παρῆν
εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ὁ δὲ Ἄδμητος ἐξένιζε μὲν αὐτόν, ἔκρυπτε δὲ τὴν
συμφοράν· εἰ γὰρ ἔλεξε τῷ φίλῳ τὰ ἀληθῆ, ὁ Ἡρακλῆς ἂν
ἔφυγεν. τέλος δὲ ὁ Ἡρακλῆς, ὡς ηὗρε τὰ περὶ τῆς
Ἀλκήστιδος παρὰ τῆς θεραπαίνης, εἰς τὸν τάφον ἦλθε
καὶ ἔλαβε τὴν Ἀλκήστιδα πρὸς βίαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Θανάτου·
ἔπειτα δὲ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα ἤγαγεν αὐτήν.
ἐκνίζω wash up
τὰ ἀληθῆ the truth
πρὸς βίαν by force
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ὁ δὲ Ἄδμητος ἐξένιζε μὲν αὐτόν,
ἔκρυπτε δὲ τὴν συμφοράν·
εἰ γὰρ ἔλεξε τῷ φίλῳ τὰ ἀληθῆ,
ὁ Ἡρακλῆς ἂν ἔφυγεν.
τέλος δὲ ὁ Ἡρακλῆς,
ὡς ηὗρε τὰ περὶ τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος παρὰ τῆς θεραπαίνης,
εἰς τὸν τάφον ἦλθε
καὶ ἔλαβε τὴν Ἀλκήστιδα πρὸς βίαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Θανάτου·
ἔπειτα δὲ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα ἤγαγεν αὐτήν.
ἐκνίζω wash up
τὰ ἀληθῆ the truth
πρὸς βίαν by force
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
ὁ δὲ Ἄδμητος ἐξένιζε μὲν αὐτόν,
ἔκρυπτε δὲ τὴν συμφοράν·
εἰ γὰρ ἔλεξε τῷ φίλῳ τὰ ἀληθῆ,
ὁ Ἡρακλῆς ἂν ἔφυγεν.
τέλος δὲ ὁ Ἡρακλῆς,
ὡς ηὗρε τὰ περὶ τῆς Ἀλκήστιδος παρὰ τῆς θεραπαίνης,
εἰς τὸν τάφον ἦλθε
καὶ ἔλαβε τὴν Ἀλκήστιδα πρὸς βίαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Θανάτου·
ἔπειτα δὲ πρὸς τὸν ἄνδρα ἤγαγεν αὐτήν.
ἐκνίζω wash up
τὰ ἀληθῆ the truth
πρὸς βίαν by force
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
Friedrich Heinrich Füger
Alcestis Gives Her Life for Admetus
Death takes Alcestis
Hercules with sword
vase painting, Classical period
Hermes, Hercules and Alcestis
Alcestis with Hercules in Hades
(wall painting in the Christian Catacomb,
Via Latina, 4th century AD)
Alcestis while Hercules wrestles Death
(Frederick Leighton)
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
καὶ ἔπλασεν ὁ Θεὸς ἔτι ἐκ τῆς γῆς πάντα τὰ θηρία τοῦ
ἀγροῦ, καὶ πάντα τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ·
ἀγρός –οῦ ὁ field
γῆ γῆς ἡ earth
θηρίον –ου τό = θήρ, θηρός ὁ
οὐρανός –οῦ ὁ "sky"
πάντα (neut nom/acc pl) "all“
(always in predicate position)
πετεινός -ή -όν "winged"
πλάζω "form, mold"
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
καὶ ἐπέβαλεν ὁ Θεὸς ἔκστασιν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἀδὰμ, καὶ ὕπνωσε·
καὶ ἔλαβε μίαν τῶν πλευρῶν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀνεπλήρωσε
σάρκα ἀντ' αὐτῆς. καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν ὁ Θεὸς τὴν πλευρὰν,
ἣν ἔλαβεν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ εἰς γυναῖκα· καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτὴν
πρὸς τὸν Ἀδὰμ.
ἀναπληρόω "fill up"
ἀντί +gen. “in place of”
γυναῖκα (acc) ἡ "woman"
εἱς, μία, ἓν "one"
ἔκστασις, -στάσεως ἡ "trance"
ἐπιβάλλω "throw on"
οἰκοδομέω "build"
ὀστέον (ὀστοῦν), ὀστέος τό "bone"
πλευρά -ᾶς ἡ "rib"
σάρξ, σαρκός ἡ "flesh"
ὑπνόω "put to sleep"
Shelmerdine Chapter 12
καὶ εἶπεν Ἀδάμ Τοῦτο νῦν ὀστοῦν ἐκ τῶν ὀστέων μου, καὶ
σὰρξ ἐκ τῆς σαρκός μου· αὕτη κληθήσεται γυνὴ, ὅτι ἐκ
τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῆς ἐλήφθη. ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει
ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν ματέρα, καὶ
προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ· καὶ ἔσονται
οἰ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν.
αὕτη κληθήσεται "she will be called"
γυνή (nom) γυναῖκα (acc) ἡ "woman"
δύο two
εἶπεν "s/he said"
εἱς, μία, ἓν "one"
ἐλήφθη "was taken“
ἕνεκεν τούτου "because of this"
καταλείπω "leave behind"
μου "my"
ὀστέον (ὀστοῦν), ὀστέος τό "bone"
προσκολληθήσεται "will stick to"
σάρξ, σαρκός ἡ "flesh“
τοῦτο (neut. nom. sg.) “this”