C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 22
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st principal
part)
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd
principal part)
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th
principal part)
4. The genitive absolute
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, τατος
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st
principal part)
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd
principal part)
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th
principal part)
4. The genitive absolute
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, τατος
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st principal part)
• All participles in the middle voice have the marker -μεν-.
• All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings.
• Thus to form the present middle participle,
to the present stem,
add –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
 λυόμενος λυομένη λυόμενον
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st principal
part)
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and
3rd principal part)
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th
principal part)
4. The genitive absolute
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, τατος
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd principal part)
•
•
•
All participles in the middle voice have the marker -μεν-.
All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings.
Thus to form the future middle participle,
to the future stem,
add –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
 λυσόμενος λυσομένη λυσόμενον
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd principal part)
•
•
•
All participles in the middle voice have the marker -μεν-.
All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings.
Thus to form the 1st (weak) aorist middle participle,
to the aorist stem,
add –άμενος –αμένη –άμενον
 λυσάμενος λυσαμένη λυσάμενον
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd principal part)
•
•
•
All participles in the middle voice have the marker -μεν-.
All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings.
Thus to form the 2nd (strong) aorist middle participle,
to the aorist middle stem,
add –ομένος –ομένη –ομένον
 λιπομένος λιπομένη λιπομένον
Note that the accent remains fixed on the -μεν- marker.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st principal
part)
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd
principal part)
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th
principal part)
4. The genitive absolute
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, τατος
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th principal part)
• The aorist passive participle is somewhat different.
•
To the aorist passive stem,
add -είς –εῖσα –έν (nominative singular endings)
-ε- replaces -ο- in all the masculine/neuter,
-ει- replaces -ου- in all the feminine
but otherwise identical to the present active.
 λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν κτλ.
Remember, only the indicative has an augment,
so the participle has no augment.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th principal part)
The future passive participle returns to the pattern for the middle
voice
• All participles in the middle voice have the marker -μεν-.
• All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings.
•
Thus to form the future passive participle,
to the future passive stem,
add –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
 λυθησόμενος λυθησομένη λυθησόμενον
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
• Summary of active participles
– Present: present stem + –ων –ουσα –ον
– Future: future stem + –ων –ουσα –ον
– Aorist:
• 1st (weak) aorist stem + –ας –ασα –αν
• 2nd (strong) aorist stem + –ών –οῦσα –όν
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
• Summary of middle participles
– Present: present stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
– Future: future stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
– Aorist:
• 1st (weak) aorist stem + –άμενος –αμένη –άμενον
• 2nd (strong) aorist stem + –ομένος –ομένη –ομένον
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
• Summary of passive participles
– Present: present stem + –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
– Future: future passive stem
+ –όμενος –ομένη –όμενον
– Aorist: aorist passive stem + –είς –εῖσα –έν
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st principal
part)
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd
principal part)
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th
principal part)
4. The genitive absolute
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, τατος
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
4. The genitive absolute
•
•
•
You have seen how often Greek chains verbs
together by making one or more of the verbs
participles.
Participles always modify their subjects, so a
participle modifies whatever noun is its subject.
If the subject-noun is not part of a sentence
already, however, the problem arises: what case
should the noun and participle be?
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
4. The genitive absolute
•
•
In this situation, there is sort of a default setting.
If the subject-noun of the participle is not part of
the main sentence, then both this noun and the
participle by default go into the genitive case,
called the genitive absolute (< Latin absolutus
“cast off”).
Translate the clause like any other circumstantial
participle, but ignore the fact that it is genitive.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
4. The genitive absolute
•
For example:
–
ἀφίκοντο μὲν οἱ πολέμιοι, ἐκ δὲ τῆς
πόλεως ἐλείπομεν.
•
–
The enemy arrived, but we were already leaving
the city.
ἀφικομένων τῶν πολεμίων ἐκ τῆς
πόλεως ἐλείπομεν.
•
When the enemy arrived, we were already leaving
the city.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1. Present middle/passive participles (1st principal
part)
2. Aorist and future middle participles (2nd and 3rd
principal part)
3. Aorist and future passive participles (6th
principal part)
4. The genitive absolute
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, τατος
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, -τατος
•
Recall from Chapter 16.2 that “Comparison” of
adjectives refers to forming the different degrees of
adjectives
–
–
–
Positive degree is the regular form of the adjective
• σοφός -ή -όν “wise”
Comparative degree means the adjective has more of its
quality than someone or something else
• σοφώτερος -α -ον “wiser”
Superlative degree means the adjective has the most of its
quality
• σοφώτατος -η -ον “wisest”
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, -τατος
•
Recall from Chapter 16.2 that an ο or ω appears between
the stem of the adjective and the τερ/τατ marker of
change in degree.
•
Generally speaking, the length of this vowel is opposite
that of the preceding vowel.
• μωρότερος -α -ον
σοφώτερος -α -ον
long short
•
short long
Since the comparative marker -τερ- ends in ρ, the
feminine singular regularly will use α in place of η (like
φίλιος -α -ον).
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, -τατος
•
In Chapter 20, you learned some types of adjectives
which use third declension endings.
–
–
–
•
βαρύς βαρεῖα βαρύ “heavy”
σόφρων –ον “prudent”
εὐγενής –ές “well-born”
In each case, the neuter nominative singular shows the
stem of the adjective:
–
–
–
βαρύσόφρονεὐγενέσ-
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, -τατος
•
Most 3rd declension adjectives add the usual
-τερος, -τατος endings to form the comparative and
superlative.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
εὐγενής –ές “well-born”
εὐγενέσ- (stem)
 εὐγενέστερος –α –ον “more well-born”
 εὐγενέστατος –η –ον “most well-born”
βαρύς βαρεῖα βαρύ “heavy”
βαρύ- (stem)
 βαρύτερος –α –ον “heavier”
 βαρύτατος –η –ον “heaviest”
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
5. Further comparison of adjectives in -τερος, -τατος
•
3rd declension adjectives with stems in -ον add -εσbefore the usual -τερος, -τατος endings.
–
–
–
–
σόφρων –ον “prudent”
σόφρον- (stem)
 σοφρονέστερος –α –ον “more prudent”
 σοφρονέστατος –η –ον “most prudent”
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
for tomorrow (Thursday, February 17, 2011):
• Quiz: Write out the middle participle endings
(-μενος, -μενη, -μενον, κτλ.)
• Prepare “The Ingenuity of Cyrus” for class.
Greece
Babylon
Persia
Greece
Iraq
Iran
Babylon
“Cyrus Cylinder” (Cyrus conquers Babylon)
(538 B.C.)
Tomb of Cyrus the Great
ruled Persia c. 557–530 B.C.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
οἱ δὲ Βαβυλώνιοι, νικηθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Περσῶν μάχῃ ἔξω
τῶν τειχῶν, εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀπεχώρησαν. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος
μάλιστα ἠπόρει· τοῖς γὰρ βαβυλωνίοις ἦν σῖτος ἐτῶν δὴ
πολλῶν. εἴτε δὴ οὖν ἄλλος αὐτῷ ἀποροῦντι
συνεβούλευσεν, εἴτε καὶ αὐτὸς ἔμαθε καλὴν βουλήν,
ἐποίει ὧδε·
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
οἱ δὲ Βαβυλώνιοι,
νικηθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν Περσῶν μάχῃ ἔξω τῶν τειχῶν,
εἰς τὴν πόλιν ἀπεχώρησαν.
ὁ δὲ Κῦρος μάλιστα ἠπόρει·
τοῖς γὰρ βαβυλωνίοις ἦν σῖτος ἐτῶν δὴ πολλῶν.
εἴτε δὴ οὖν ἄλλος αὐτῷ ἀποροῦντι συνεβούλευσεν,
εἴτε καὶ αὐτὸς ἔμαθε καλὴν βουλήν,
ἐποίει ὧδε·
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
τάξας τὴν στρατιὰν πᾶσαν ἐξ ἐμβολῆς τοῦ Εὐφράτου
καλουμένου ποταμοῦ, ᾗ εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσβάλλει, καὶ
ὄπισθεν αὖθις τῆς πόλεως τάξας ἑτέρους, ᾗ ἐκβαίνει ἐκ
τῆς πόλεως ὁ πόταμος, ἐκέλευσε τὸν στρατόν, ἐπεὶ
ὄψονται τὸ ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν ὄν, εἰσβαίνειν αὐτῷ εἰς τὴν
πόλιν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
τάξας τὴν στρατιὰν πᾶσαν ἐξ ἐμβολῆς τοῦ Εὐφράτου
καλουμένου ποταμοῦ,
ᾗ εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσβάλλει,
καὶ ὄπισθεν αὖθις τῆς πόλεως τάξας ἑτέρους,
ᾗ ἐκβαίνει ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ὁ πόταμος,
ἐκέλευσε τὸν στρατόν,
ἐπεὶ ὄψονται
τὸ ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν ὄν,
εἰσβαίνειν αὐτῷ εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Euphrates
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Κῦρος ἤγαγε τοὺς λοιποὺς τῶν ἀνδρῶν πρὸς
τὴν λίμνην, ἣν ἡ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασίλεα ἔπραξεν ἐν τῷ
πρὶν χρόνῳ ἐγγὺς τοῦ ποταμοῦ. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος τὸν ποταμὸν
διώρυχι εἰσαγαγὼν εἰς τὴν λίμνην οὖσαν ἕλος, τὸ
ἀρχαῖον ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν εἶναι ἐποίησεν. καὶ τοῦ ὑδάτος
ἀποφυγόντος, οἱ Πέρσαι οἱ ταχθέντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως
κατὰ τὸ ῥεῖθρον οἶοί τ’ ἦσαν εἰσβαίνειν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
ἔπειτα δὲ ὁ Κῦρος ἤγαγε τοὺς λοιποὺς τῶν ἀνδρῶν
πρὸς τὴν λίμνην,
ἣν ἡ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασίλεα ἔπραξεν
ἐν τῷ πρὶν χρόνῳ ἐγγὺς τοῦ ποταμοῦ.
ὁ δὲ Κῦρος τὸν ποταμὸν διώρυχι εἰσαγαγὼν
εἰς τὴν λίμνην οὖσαν ἕλος,
τὸ ἀρχαῖον ῥεῖθρον διαβατὸν εἶναι ἐποίησεν.
καὶ
τοῦ ὑδάτος ἀποφυγόντος,
οἱ Πέρσαι οἱ ταχθέντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως κατὰ τὸ ῥεῖθρον
οἶοί τ’ ἦσαν εἰσβαίνειν εἰς τὴν πόλιν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
εἰ μὲν ἔμαθον οἱ Βαβυλώνιοι τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Κύρου ποιούμενον,
ὁρῶντες τοὺς Πέρσας εἰσβαίνοντας κατέλυσαν ἂν
αὐτούς. νῦν δὲ οὐκ εἶδον· ὑπὸ γὰρ μεγέθους τῆς πόλεως,
πολὺν χρόνον τὸν θάνατον τὸν τῶν περὶ τὰ ἔσχατα
οἰκούντων οἱ ἐν τῷ μέσῳ οὐκ ἔμάθον, ἀλλὰ (τύχῃ γὰρ
ἑορτὴ ἦν) ἐχόρευον καὶ ἐν εὐπαθείαις ἦσαν. καὶ Βαβυλὼν
οὕτω τότε πρῶτον ᾑρέθη.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
εἰ μὲν ἔμαθον οἱ Βαβυλόνιοι
τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Κύρου ποιούμενον,
ὁρῶντες τοὺς Πέρσας εἰσβαίνοντας
κατέλυσαν ἂν αὐτούς.
νῦν δὲ οὐκ εἶδον·
ὑπὸ γὰρ μεγέθους τῆς πόλεως,
πολὺν χρόνον τὸν θάνατον
τὸν τῶν περὶ τὰ ἔσχατα οἰκούντων
οἱ ἐν τῷ μέσῳ οὐκ ἔμαθον,
ἀλλὰ (τύχῃ γὰρ ἑορτὴ ἦν) ἐχόρευον
καὶ ἐν εὐπαθείαις ἦσαν,
καὶ Βαβυλὼν οὕτω τότε πρῶτον ᾑρέθη.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
for next class (Monday, February 21, 2011):
• Quiz: parsing
• Continue reading.
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
1 καὶ ἦλθεν εἷς ἐκ τῶν ἑπτὰ ἀγγέλων τῶν ἐχόντων τὰς
ἑπτὰ φιάλας, καὶ ἐλάλησεν μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ λέγων, Δεῦρο,
δείξω σοι τὸ κρίμα τῆς πόρνης τῆς μεγάλης τῆς
καθημένης ἐπὶ ὑδάτων πολλῶν, 2 μεθ᾽ ἧς ἐπόρνευσαν οἱ
βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἐμεθύσθησαν οἱ κατοικοῦντες τὴν
γῆν ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς.
δείξω (1st sg fut indic act)
< δείκνυμι show
δεῦρο here
εἷς (nom sg masc) one
ἑπτά seven
ἦλθε (3rd sg aor.indic act) came
κάθημαι sit
κατοικέω inhabit
κρίμα –ατος τό judgment, verdict
λαλέω talk, say
μεθύω drink, be drunk
οἴνος –ου ὁ wine
πορνεία –ας ἡ whoring
πορνεύω whore
πόρνη –ης ἡ whore
φιάλη –ης ἡ bowl
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
3 καὶ ἀπήνεγκέν με εἰς ἔρημον ἐν πνεύματι. καὶ εἶδον
γυναῖκα καθημένην ἐπὶ θηρίον κόκκινον, γέμοντα
ὀνόματα βλασφημίας, ἔχων κεφαλὰς ἑπτὰ καὶ κέρατα
δέκα.
ἀποφέρω ἀποίσω ἀπήνεγκον
carry away
βλασφημία –ας ἡ blasphemy
γέμω be full of
εἶδον (1st sg aor indic act) < ὁράω
ἔρημος –ου ὁ desert
θηρίον –ου τό beast
κάθημαι sit
κέρας –ατος τό horn, wing
κεφαλή -ῆς ἡ head
κόκκινος –η –ον red, scarlet
πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
4 καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἦν περιβεβλημένη πορφυροῦν καὶ κόκκινον,
καὶ κεχρυσωμένη χρυσίῳ καὶ λίθῳ τιμίῳ καὶ μαργαρίταις,
ἔχουσα ποτήριον χρυσοῦν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτῆς γέμον
βδελυγμάτων καὶ τὰ ἀκάθαρτα τῆς πορνείας αὐτῆς,
ἀκάθαρτος -ον unclean
βδέλυγμα –ατος τό something vile
γέμω be full of
κόκκινος –η –ον red, scarlet
μαργαρίτης –ου ὁ pearl
περιβάλλω put on
πορφυροῦς –ᾶ -οῦν purple
πορνεία –ας ἡ whoring
ποτήριον –ου τό drinking cup
τίμιος –α –ον precious
χείρ χειρός ἡ hand
χρυσίον –ου τό gold
χρυσόω be (covered with) gold
Shelmerdine Chapter 22
5 καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον αὐτῆς ὄνομα γεγραμμένον,
μυστήριον, Βαβυλὼν ἡ μεγάλη, ἡ μήτηρ τῶν πορνῶν καὶ
τῶν βδελυγμάτων τῆς γῆς. 6 καὶ εἶδον τὴν γυναῖκα
μεθύουσαν ἐκ τοῦ αἵματος τῶν ἁγίων καὶ ἐκ τοῦ αἵματος
τῶν μαρτύρων Ἰησοῦ. καὶ ἐθαύμασα ἰδὼν αὐτὴν θαῦμα
μέγα.
ἅγιος –α –ον holy
αἷμα –ατος τό blood
βδέλυγμα –ατος τό something vile
εἶδον (1st sg aor indic act) < ὁράω
θαῦμα –ατος τό awesome sight
ἰδών (mas. nom. sg aor.part. act) < ὁράω
μάρτυς –τυρος ὁ witness, martyr
μεθύω drink, be drunk
μέτωπον –ου τό forehead
μυστήριον –ου τό mystery
πόρνη –ης ἡ whore