C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 28
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1.
2.
3.
4.
Future and General Conditions
Conditions with the subjunctive
Conditions with the optative
Directional suffixes
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1.
2.
3.
4.
Future and General Conditions
Conditions with the subjunctive
Conditions with the optative
Directional suffixes
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1. Future and General Conditions
•
Chapter 12.4-6 introduced conditions.
–
–
•
Chapter 28 introduces
–
–
•
Simple conditions
Contrary-to-fact conditions
Future more vivid conditions (with the subjunctive)
Future less vivid conditions (with the optative)
This presentation surveys all four types of
conditions somewhat differently from the chapter.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
•
A condition consists of two parts:
–
The protasis (πρότασις) = the if-statement, a
subordinate clause.
•
•
–
In Greek, it begins with εἰ “if”
use μή to express “not”
The apodosis (ἀπόδοσις) = the conclusion, the main or
independent clause.
•
In Greek, use οὐ to express “not”
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1. Future and General Conditions
•
•
Whereas English marks conditions by tense, Greek
marks conditions more by mood than by tense.
Greek has two broad categories of conditions.
Conditions referring to the past or present
–
•
These use the indicative mood.
Conditions referring to the future
–
These conditions use the future indicative, subjunctive, or
optative depending on the likelihood of the situation to
happen.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
•
Conditions referring to the past or present use only
the indicative mood:
–
(protasis) εἰ δῶρα πέμπουσιν,
•
–
“If they send gifts,
(apodosis) τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν.
•
we pursue peace.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
•
These conditions simply express the mechanism of
the condition
–
εἰ δῶρα πέμπουσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν.
•
•
–
εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμπον, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν.
•
•
–
“If they are sending gifts, we are pursuing peace.”
present indicative verbs
“If they were sending gifts, we were pursuing peace.”
imperfect indicative verbs
εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμψαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώξαμεν.
•
•
“If they sent gifts, we pursued peace.”
aorist indicative verbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
•
If the protasis is unreal (“contrary to fact”), then the
apodosis adds the particle ἄν.
–
εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμπον, τὴν εἰρήνην ἂν ἐδιώκομεν.
•
•
–
“If they were sending gifts [but they are not], we would be
pursuing peace [but we are not].”
imperfect indicative verbs
εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμψαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἂν ἐδιώξαμεν.
•
•
“If they had sent gifts [but they did not], we would have pursued
peace [but we did not].”
aorist indicative verbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1. Future and General Conditions
•
If the condition refers to the future, then the mood
depends on the certainty of the speaker about the
likelihood of the situation to happen:
–
–
–
•
completely certain = future indicative
confident = subjunctive
uncertain = optative
The particle ἄν always accompanies the
subjunctive in a protasis (or any dependent clause)
and the optative in an apodosis.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1.
2.
3.
4.
Future and General Conditions
Conditions with the subjunctive
Conditions with the optative
Directional suffixes
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
2. Conditions with the subjunctive
•
•
The particle ἄν always accompanies the
subjunctive in a protasis (or any dependent clause).
In practice, εἰ + ἄν usually contracts to ἐάν or
even ἄν.
–
the particle ἄν never begins a clause, so if ἄν begins a
clause, it is a contraction for εἰ + ἄν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
2. Conditions with the subjunctive
•
A very common combination (called the “Future
More Vivid” condition) has the subjunctive in the
protasis and a future indicative in the apodosis.
–
–
ἐὰν δῶρα πέμπωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώξομεν.
ἐὰν δῶρα πέμψωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώξομεν.
•
•
“If they send gifts, we will pursue peace.”
The present or aorist in the subjunctive verb indicates aspect, not
time.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
2. Conditions with the subjunctive
•
Beware that, with a present indicative in the
apodosis, a subjunctive in the protasis (or any
dependent clause) simply generalizes the condition.
–
εἰ δῶρα πέμπουσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν.
•
•
–
“If they are sending gifts, we are pursuing peace.”
present indicative protasis
ἐὰν δῶρα πέμπωσιν, τὴν εἰρήνην διώκομεν.
•
•
“In general, if they send gifts, we pursue peace.”
subjunctive protasis
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1.
2.
3.
4.
Future and General Conditions
Conditions with the subjunctive
Conditions with the optative
Directional suffixes
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
3. Conditions with the optative
•
A very common combination (called the “Future
Less Vivid” condition) has the optative in both the
protasis and in the apodosis (with ἄν, since it is, in
effect, a potential optative).
–
–
εἰ δῶρα πέμποιεν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἄν διώκοιμεν.
εἰ δῶρα πέμψειαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἄν διώξαιμεν.
•
•
“If they should send gifts, we would pursue peace.”
The present or aorist in the optative verb indicates aspect, not
time.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
3. Conditions with the optative
•
Beware that, with an imperfect indicative in the
apodosis, an optative in the protasis (or any
dependent clause) simply generalizes the condition.
–
εἰ δῶρα ἔπεμπον, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν.
•
•
–
“If they were sending gifts, we were pursuing peace.”
imperfect indicative protasis
εἰ δῶρα πέμψειαν, τὴν εἰρήνην ἐδιώκομεν.
•
•
“In general, if they sent gifts, we pursued peace.”
optative protasis
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1.
2.
3.
4.
Future and General Conditions
Conditions with the subjunctive
Conditions with the optative
Directional suffixes
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
4. Directional suffixes
•
With words referring to places, two suffixes can
indicate direction:
–
-δε = “to, toward”
•
•
–
οἴκαδε “(to) home”
Ἀθήναζε “to Athens”
-θεν = “from”
•
•
οἴκοθεν “from home”
Ἀθήνηθεν “from Athens”
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
for tomorrow (Thursday, March 31, 2011):
• Quiz: vocabulary.
– Other: omit Ἀθήναζε, Ἀθήνηθεν, οἴκαδε, οἴκοθεν
• Biblical Reading for Chapter 28.
• Don’t forget the Greek Gathering!
– 5-630 pm and then Star Trek “Who Mourns for Adonais?”
– Hodges 329 (lounge)
– free Greek food!
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
ἄγγελος δέ τις Λακεδαιμόνιος, ταῦτα ἀκούσας, εἶπε τάδε·
Οὔ σοι ἐπιτρέψομεν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν· ἀλλ‘ ἐὰν μὲν βούλῃ
βοηθεῖν τῇ Ἑλλάδι, ἀρχθήσει ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων· εἰ δὲ
μὴ ἄρχεσθαι, σὺ δὲ μηδὲ ἔθελε βοηθεῖν. πρὸς δὲ ταῦτα ὁ
Γέλων ἀπεκρίνατο· Ὦ ξένε Λακεδαιμόνιε, ἐμὲ ὑβρίσας, οὔ
με ἔπεισας ὑβρίζειν σε. πολλῷ μὲν μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐμὴ
στρατιά, πολλῷ δὲ πλείονες αἱ νῆες, ἀλλὰ ὑπείξομεν σοί.
ἐὰν τοῦ μὲν πεζοῦ ὑμεῖς ἡγεμονεύητε, τοῦ δὲ ναυτικοῦ
ἐγώ ἄρξω· εἰ δὲ ὑμῖν ἡδύ ἐστι κατὰ θάλατταν
ἡγεμονεύειν, τοῦ πεζοῦ ἐγὼ ἐθέλω. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ὑπείξητε
τοῦτο, ἄνευ συμμάχων ἀπελεύσεσθε.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
ἄγγελος δέ τις Λακεδαιμόνιος, ταῦτα ἀκούσας, εἶπε τάδε·
Οὔ σοι ἐπιτρέψομεν τὴν ἡγεμονίαν·
ἀλλ‘ ἐὰν μὲν βούλῃ βοηθεῖν τῇ Ἑλλάδι,
ἀρχθήσει ὑπὸ Λακεδαιμονίων·
εἰ δὲ μὴ ἄρχεσθαι,
σὺ δὲ μηδὲ ἔθελε βοηθεῖν.
πρὸς δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Γέλων ἀπεκρίνατο·
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
Ὦ ξένε Λακεδαιμόνιε, ἐμὲ ὑβρίσας,
οὔ με ἔπεισας ὑβρίζειν σε.
πολλῷ μὲν μείζων ἐστὶν ἡ ἐμὴ στρατιά,
πολλῷ δὲ πλείονες αἱ νῆες,
ἀλλὰ ὑπείξομεν σοί.
ἐὰν τοῦ μὲν πεζοῦ ὑμεῖς ἡγεμονεύητε,
τοῦ δὲ ναυτικοῦ ἐγώ ἄρξω·
εἰ δὲ ὑμῖν ἡδύ ἐστι κατὰ θάλατταν ἡγεμονεύειν,
τοῦ πεζοῦ ἐγὼ ἐθέλω.
ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ὑπείξητε τοῦτο,
ἄνευ συμμάχων ἀπελεύσεσθε.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἄγγελος εὐθὺς εἶπε τάδε· Ὦ βασιλεῦ
Συρακοσίων, ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπέπεμψεν ἡμᾶς πρός σε οὐχ ἵνα
ἡγεμόνα αἰτήσαιμεν, ἀλλὰ στρατιάν· οὐδ’ ἐὰν ὁ
Λακεδαιμόνιος βούληταί σοι ἐπιτρέπειν τὴν τοῦ ναυτικοῦ
ἀρχήν, ἡμεῖς ταῦτα οὐκ ἐάσομεν· ἡμετέρα γάρ ἐστιν
αὕτη, μὴ αὐτῶν βουλομένων τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων.
ἀπεκρίνατο δὲ Γέλων· Ξένε Ἀθηναῖε, ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε τοὺς
μὲν ἄρχοντας ἔχειν, τοὺς δὲ ἀρχομένους οὐχ ἕξειν. ἐπεὶ
τοίνυν, οὐδὲν ὑπείκοντες, ἔχειν τὸ πᾶν ἐθέλετε, εὐθὺς
ἀποχωρήσατε εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἄγγελος εὐθὺς εἶπε τάδε·
Ὦ βασιλεῦ Συρακοσίων,
ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀπέπεμψεν ἡμᾶς πρός σε
οὐχ ἵνα ἡγεμόνα αἰτήσαιμεν, ἀλλὰ στρατιάν·
οὐδ’ ἐὰν ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος βούληταί σοι ἐπιτρέπειν
τὴν τοῦ ναυτικοῦ ἀρχήν,
ἡμεῖς ταῦτα οὐκ ἐάσομεν·
ἡμετέρα γάρ ἐστιν αὕτη,
μὴ αὐτῶν βουλομένων τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
ἀπεκρίνατο δὲ Γέλων·
Ξένε Ἀθηναῖε,
ὑμεῖς δοκεῖτε τοὺς μὲν ἄρχοντας ἔχειν,
τοὺς δὲ ἀρχομένους οὐχ ἕξειν.
ἐπεὶ τοίνυν, οὐδὲν ὑπείκοντες, ἔχειν τὸ πᾶν ἐθέλετε,
εὐθὺς ἀποχωρήσατε εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
1 Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἀνήχθη εἰς τὴν ἔρημον ὑπὸ τοῦ
πνεύματος, πειρασθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. 2 καὶ
νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσαράκοντα καὶ νύκτας
τεσσαράκοντα ὕστερον ἐπείνασεν. 3 Καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ
πειράζων εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὲ ἵνα οἱ λίθοι
οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται.
ἀνάγω lead up
ἄρτος –ου ὁ bread
διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil
ἔρημος –ου ἡ desert
νηστεύω fast
πεινάω be hungry
πειράζω test, tempt
πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit, life
προσέρχομαι go to
τεσσαράκοντα forty
υἱός, υἱοῦ ὁ son
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
4 ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν, Γέγραπται, Οὐκ ἐπ’ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ
ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι
ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ. 5 Τότε παραλαμβάνει
αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν, καὶ ἵστησιν αὐτὸν
ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ, 6 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ,
ἅγιος -α –ον holy
ἄρτος –ου ὁ bread
γέγραπται “it is written”
διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil
ἐκπορεύομαι journey out
ζάω live
ἱερόν -οῦ τό temple
μόνος –η –ον only, alone
παραλαμβάνει take to
πτερύγιον –ου τό parapet, pinnacle
ῥῆμα –ατος τό spoken word
στόμα –ατος τό mouth
υἱός, υἱοῦ ὁ son
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
6 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν κάτω·
γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ
σοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε, μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς
λίθον τὸν πόδα σου. 7 ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Πάλιν
γέγραπται, Οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου.
αἴρω, ἀρῶ raise
γέγραπται “it is written”
ἐκπειράζω test, tempt
ἐντέλλομαι command, give orders to
κάτω down
κύριος –ου ὁ lord
μήποτε never
πάλιν again
πούς ποδός ὁ foot
προσκόπτω stumble, strike on
υἱός, υἱοῦ ὁ son
χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
8 Πάλιν παραλαμβάνει αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν
λίαν, καὶ δείκνυσιν αὐτῷ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τοῦ
κόσμου καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτῶν, 9 καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, Ταῦτά σοι
πάντα δώσω ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι.
βασιλεία –ας ἡ kingdom
διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil
κόσμος –ου ὁ cosmos, world, universe
λίαν too (much)
ὄρος –ους τό mountain
παραλαμβάνω take to
ἔπεσον < πίπτω fall
προσκυνέω kneel, worship,
bow down
ὑψηλός –ή –όν high, sublime
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
10 τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ὕπαγε, Σατανᾶ· γέγραπται
γάρ, Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ
λατρεύσεις. 11 Τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτὸν ὁ διάβολος, καὶ ἰδοὺ
ἄγγελοι προσῆλθον καὶ διηκόνουν αὐτῷ.
ἀφίησιν < ἀφίημι let go, leave
γέγραπται “it is written”
διάβολος –ου ὁ slanderer, the Devil
διακονέω serve, minister
ἰδοὺ Look!
κύριος –ου ὁ lord
λατρεύω serve, worship
μόνος –η –ον only, alone
προσέρχομαι go to
προσκυνέω kneel, worship, bow down
ὑπάγω depart, go away
Shelmerdine Chapter 28
Don’t forget the Greek Gathering today!
– 5-630 pm and then Star Trek “Who Mourns for
Adonais?”
– Hodges 329 (lounge)
– free Greek food!
for next class (Monday, April 4, 2011):
• Quiz: parsing on Chapter 28 Biblical Reading
• Read Chapter 29