C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 8
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
3. The present active imperative, second
person of thematic verbs and εἰμί
4. Connection
5. μέν and δέ
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
3. The present active imperative, second
person of thematic verbs and εἰμί
4. Connection
5. μέν and δέ
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
•
•
•
This chapter introduces 3rd declension nouns.
This is the last declension in Greek.
The third declension contains nouns of all three
genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter).
Some groups of 3rd declension nouns display
certain irregularities, so we will learn this
declension in stages across Chapters 8-15.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
•
The basic endings for 3rd declension nouns are:
singular
Nom. -ς
Gen. -ος
Dat. -ι
Acc. -α
Voc. = stem
plural
Nom. -ες
Gen. -ων
Dat. -σι(ν)
Acc. -ας
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
•
When the special rules for neuter nouns are
applied, the basic endings are:
singular
Nom. = stem
Gen. -ος
Dat. -ι
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
plural
Nom. -α
Gen. -ων
Dat. -σι(ν)
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
As so often, adding a σ to a Greek word poses
problems, so nouns of the 3rd declension differ in
how to form the nominative singular (-ς ending)
and dative plural (-σι ending).
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
3. The present active imperative, second
person of thematic verbs and εἰμί
4. Connection
5. μέν and δέ
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
•
•
•
Recall that a palatal (κ, γ, χ), when followed by a
σ, is written ξ.
Consequently, when the stem of a third
declension noun ends in a palatal (κ, γ, χ), the
nominative singular and dative plural show ξ.
All such nouns are masculine or feminine. No
neuter nouns in the third declension have stems
ending in a palatal.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
•
Thus the forms of κῆρυξ, κήρυκος ὁ
“herald”
singular
Nom. κῆρυξ
Gen. κήρυκος
Dat. κήρυκι
Acc. κήρυκα
Voc. = nom.
plural
Nom. κήρυκες
Gen. κηρύκων
Dat. κήρυξι
Acc. κήρυκας
Voc. = nom.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
•
•
As a rule, neuter nouns in the third declension
have no ending in the nominative singular (and
hence in the accusative and vocative singulars),
leaving just the stem.
As a rule, words in Greek can end only in a
vowel, ν, ρ or ς.
–
The only exceptions are ἐκ “out of,” and οὐκ “not”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
•
•
Most neuter nouns in the third declension have
stems ending in –τ, but a Greek word cannot end
in -τ, so it drops.
In the dative plural, τ + σ = σ, so the τ drops
again.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
•
Thus the forms of σῶμα, σώματος τό
“body”
singular
Nom. σῶμα
Gen. σώματος
Dat. σώματι
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
plural
Nom. σώματα
Gen. σωμάτων
Dat. σώμασι
Acc. = nom.
Voc. = nom.
nom. sg.: σωματ  σωμα
dat. pl.: σωματσι  σωμασι
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
4. Connection
5. μέν and δέ
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
parse/parsing
• 1st, 2nd or 3RD PERSON
• SINGULAR or PLURAL
• PRESENT, IMPERFECT, FUTURE,
AORIST, or PERFECT
• INDICATIVE, IMPERATIVE
• ACTIVE
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
•
•
This chapter introduces a new mood, the
imperative.
The imperative expresses a direct command.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
•
•
Since most often someone gives a command to
the person to whom they are speaking,
imperatives are most often 2nd person.
Greek has different forms for the singular
imperative (commanding one person) and
plural imperative (commanding multiple
people).
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
•
The present imperative uses these endings:
–
–
•
Thus
–
–
•
-ε (singular)
-ετε (plural)
λῦε “be free!”
λύετε “[y’all] be free!”
Notice the plural form is identical with the
indicative.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
•
The present imperatives of εἰμί are:
–
–
•
ἴσθι “be…!”
ἔστε “[y’all] be…!”
Notice the plural form is identical with the
indicative.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
•
The imperative expresses a command, for
example,
–
ἀεὶ πιστεύετε τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς ἀνθρώποις.
•
•
“Always trust good people.”
Vocatives logically accompany imperatives:
–
μένε ἐν τῇ κώμῃ, ὦ νεανία.
• “Stay in the village, young man.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
3. The present active imperative, 2nd
person, of thematic verbs and εἰμί
•
To negate an imperative, use μή, not οὐ.
–
μὴ λῦε τὸν ἵππον, ὦ στρατιώτα.
•
“Don’t loose the horse, soldier.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
3. The present active imperative, second person of
thematic verbs and εἰμί
4. Connection
5. μέν and δέ
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
Both English and Greek can connect simple
sentences with “and” and “but”
–
ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει καὶ φεύγομεν εὐθύς.
•
–
“Gozilla is pursuing, and we run away immediately.”
ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει ἀλλὰ φεύγομεν εὐθύς.
•
“Gozilla is pursuing, but we run away immediately.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
Greek has conjunctions which are postpositive,
that is, they must come second in their clauses
–
ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει, φεύγομεν δὲ εὐθύς.
•
•
“Gozilla is pursuing, and we run away immediately.”
“Gozilla is pursuing, but we run away immediately.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
Greek has conjunctions which are postpositive,
that, is, they must come second in their clauses
–
φεύγομεν, ἡ γὰρ Γοζίλα διώκει .
•
•
“We run away, for Gozilla is pursuing.”
“We run away, because Gozilla is pursuing.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
Greek has conjunctions which are postpositive,
that, is, they must come second in their clauses
–
ἡ Γοζίλα διώκει, φεύγομεν οὖν εὐθύς.
•
•
“Gozilla is pursuing; therefore, we run away immediately.”
“Gozilla is pursuing, so we run away immediately.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
The Greek conjunction τε is both postpositive
and enclitic:
–
οἵ τε στρατιῶται καὶ οἱ ναῦται
•
–
“both the soldiers and the sailors”
οἱ στρατιῶταί τε καὶ ὁ στρατηγός
•
“both the soldiers and the general”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
As an enclitic, τε can throw its accent on a
preceding proclitic, like οὐ, and the two are
often written as one word:
–
οἱ στρατιῶται διώκουσιν οὔτε τοὺς Πέρσας
οὔτε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους.
•
“The soldiers pursue neither the Persians nor the Athenians.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
If the negative is μή, the combination is written
similarly:
–
ἐθέλω μήτε διώκειν μήτε φεύγειν.
•
“I want neither to pursue nor to flee.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
4. Connection
•
MOST IMPORTANT: In Greek, normally
every single sentence has a conjunction linking
it to the previous sentence!
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
1. 3rd declension nouns
2. 3rd declension nouns: stems in -κ, -τ
3. The present active imperative, second person of
thematic verbs and εἰμί
4. Connection
5. μέν and δέ
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
5. μέν and δέ
•
Among the most common Greek conjunctions
are μέν and δέ, which are both postpositive
–
ἡ μὲν Γοζίλα διώκει, φεύγομεν δὲ εὐθύς.
•
•
“Gozilla is pursuing, and we run away immediately.”
“Gozilla is pursuing, but we run away immediately.”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
5. μέν and δέ
•
Good Greek uses μέν and δέ to contrast the
items they follow:
–
ῥᾴδιον μέν ἐστι λέγειν, χαλεπὸν δὲ πείθειν.
•
–
ὁ μὲν ποιητὴς γράφει, ὁ δὲ κριτὴς διδάσκει.
•
–
The poet writes, and the judge teaches.
ὁ ποιητὴς γράφει μέν, διδάσκει δὲ οὔ.
•
–
It is easy to speak, but difficult to persuade.
The poet writes, but he does not teach.
ὁ ποιητὴς γράφει καλὰ μέν, μακρὰ δέ.
•
The poet writes beautiful things, but long ones.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
5. μέν and δέ
•
Greek uses μέν and δέ to contrast different sets of
the same noun:
–
οἱ μέν στρατιῶται ἐδίωκον, οἱ δὲ ἔφευγον.
•
–
οἱ μέν τῶν ποιητῶν πείθουσιν, οἱ δὲ οὔ.
•
–
“Some of the poets persuade, but others do not.”
οἱ μέν πιστεύουσι τοῖς λόγοις, οἱ δὲ τοῖς ὅπλοις.
•
–
“Some soldiers were pursuing, and others were fleeing.”
Some (men) trust in words, others in weapons.
αἱ μέν πλούσιαί εἰσιν, αἱ δὲ οὔ.
•
Some (women) are wealthy, but others are not.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
Xenophon of Athens
Ξενοφῶν ὁ Ἀθηναῖος
(c.430-c.355 BC)
Greece
Armenia
The March of the Ten Thousand
The March of the Ten Thousand
Ἀρμένιοι
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰς οἰκίας ἔχουσι κατὰ τῆς γῆς·
ταῖς δὲ οἰκίαις
τὸ μὲν στόμα μικρόν,
κάτω δὲ μεγάλαι.
αἱ δὲ εἴσοδοι
τοῖς μὲν ὑποζυγίοις ὀρυκταί εἰσιν,
οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι καταβαίνουσιν ἐπὶ κλίμακος.
ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις εἰσὶν αἶγές τε καὶ ἄλλα ζῷα·
οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰ ζῷα ἔνδον θεραπέυσουσιν
ἐν δὲ ἀγγείοις ἐστὶν οἶνος·
καὶ τὸν οἶνον εἰς τὸ στόμα μύζουσι καλάμοις.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰς οἰκίας ἔχουσι κατὰ τῆς γῆς·
ταῖς δὲ οἰκίαις
τὸ μὲν στόμα μικρόν,
κάτω δὲ μεγάλαι.
αἱ δὲ εἴσοδοι
τοῖς μὲν ὑποζυγίοις ὀρυκταί εἰσιν,
οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι καταβαίνουσιν ἐπὶ κλίμακος.
ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις εἰσὶν αἶγές τε καὶ ἄλλα ζῷα·
οἱ δὲ Ἀρμένιοι τὰ ζῷα ἔνδον θεραπέυσουσιν
ἐν δὲ ἀγγείοις ἐστὶν οἶνος·
καὶ τὸν οἶνον εἰς τὸ στόμα μύζουσι καλάμοις.
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν
καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει,
πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος
πολλὰ ὄντα
ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστός·
ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.) one
καθάπερ... οὕτως Just as…so
μέλη (neut. pl. nom./acc.) limb
ὄντα “although they are”
οὕτως in this way
πάντα (neut. pl. nom./acc.) all (predicate position)
πολλά (neut. pl. nom./acc.) many (predicate position)
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
καὶ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι ἡμεῖς πάντες εἰς ἓν σῶμα
ἐβαπτίσθημεν,
εἴτε Ἰουδαῖοι εἴτε Ἕλληνες, εἴτε δοῦλοι εἴτε ἐλεύθεροι,
καὶ πάντες ἓν πνεῦμα ἐποτίσθημεν.
ἐβαπτίσθημεν “we were baptized”
ἐλεύθερο ς –η -ον free
Ἕλλην -ος ὁ Greek
ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.), ἑνὶ (dat. sg.) one
ἡμεῖς we
Ἰουδαῖος –α -ον Jewish
πάντες (m./f. pl. nom./acc.) all (predicate position)
πνεῦμα –ατος τό breath, spirit
ἐποτίσθημεν “we were made to drink”
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
καὶ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἓν μέλος ἀλλὰ πολλά.
ἐὰν εἴπῃ ὁ πούς,
Ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ χείρ, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος,
οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος·
καὶ ἐὰν εἴπῃ τὸ οὖς,
Ὅτι οὐκ εἰμὶ ὀφθαλμός, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐκ τοῦ σώματος,
οὐ παρὰ τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ σώματος·
ἐὰν if
εἴπῃ (3rd sg. aorist) “says”
ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.) one
μέλος (neut sg. nom./acc.) limb
ὅτι because
οὖς, ὠτός τό ear
ὀφθαλμός –οῦ ὁ eye
παρὰ τοῦτο “because of this”
πολλά (neut. pl. nom./acc.) many
(predicate position)
πούς, ποδός ὁ foot
χείρ, χειρός ἡ hand
Shelmerdine Chapter 8
εἰ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα ὀφθαλμός, ποῦ ἡ ἀκοή;
εἰ ὅλον ἀκοή, ποῦ ἡ ὄσφρησις;
νυνὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἔθετο τὰ μέλη, ἓν ἕκαστον αὐτῶν,
ἐν τῷ σώματι καθὼς ἠθέλησεν.
(1 Cor. 12.12-18)
ἀκοή -ῆς ἡ listening
εἰ if
ἔθετο (3rd sg. aorist) arranged
ἕκαστος –η -ον each
ἕν (neut. sg. nom./acc.) one
καθὼς just as
μέλη (neut. pl. nom./acc.) limb
νυνὶ as it is now
ὅλος –η -ον whole
ὄσφρησις –εως ἡ seeing
ὀφθαλμός –οῦ ὁ eye
ποῦ where?