Key Questions for Understanding the Anatomy of the Heart

Key Questions for Understanding
the Anatomy of the Heart
1. Major Function of the
Cardiovascular System:
 Transportation of oxygen, nutrients,
cell wastes, hormones, and other
substances vital for homeostasis
2. Define and describe the 2 parts
of the pericardium
 The pericardium is a double sac of
serous membrane enclosing the heart
 The epicardium tightly hugs the
external surface of the heart
 The parietal pericardium anchors the
heart to surrounding structures such
as the sternum and diaphragm
3. Function of serous fluid produced
by the pericardium
 This serous fluid allows the heart to
beat easily in a friction-less
4. What is the structure and
function of the myocardium?
 The myocardium is made of thick
bundles of cardiac muscle twisted into
ring-like arrangements
 It is the layer of the heart that
actually contracts
5. What is the endocardium and
what is its function?
 The endocardium is a thin, glistening
sheet of endothelium that lines the
heart chambers. It is continuous with
the linings of the blood vessels
entering and leaving the heart
 It helps blood flow smoothly through
the heart
6. What is the primary function of
the atria?
 The atria are receiving chambers for
blood returning to the heart from
either the body or the lungs.
7. What is the primary function of
the ventricles?
 The ventricles are discharging
chambers which pump blood out of
the heart to either the lungs or the
8. The steps of pulmonary
1. Oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart
from the superior and inferior vena cavae
2. This blood enters the right atrium
3. Blood is pumped out of the right ventricle
into the pulmonary arteries
4. Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the
lungs, in which oxygen is picked up and
carbon dioxide is unloaded
5. Oxygen-rich blood returns to the left-side
of the heart through the 4 pulmonary veins
6. This blood enters the left atrium
9. The process of systemic
1. Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium
2. This blood is pumped out of the left
ventricle into the aorta
3. Oxygenated blood is delivered to the
body cells by the arteries
4. Veins carry blood back to the vena
5. The vena cavae enter the right atrium
10. Contrast the function of
pulmonary circulation with systemic
 The function of pulmonary circulation
is to supply the blood with oxygen.
The function of systemic circulation is
to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the
cells of the body.
11. What is the function of the
valves of the heart?
 The valves of the heart allow blood to
flow in only one direction through the
heart chambers.
12. What is the location and
function of the AV valves?
 The AV valves are located between
the atria and the ventricles on each
side of the heart. They prevent
backflow into the atria when the
ventricles contract.
13. Location and Function of the
Semilunar Valves:
 The semilunar valves are located at
the bases of the 2 arteries leaving the
 Their function is to prevent arterial
blood from re-entering the heart
14. What is the source of the blood
that nourishes the heart muscle?
 The source of blood for the muscles
of the heart is the right and left
coronary arteries
15. From what do the coronary
arteries branch?
 The coronary arteries branch from the
base of the aorta
16. Into what do the cardiac veins
 The cardiac veins empty into the
coronary sinus, which empties into
the right atrium
17. What is angina pectoris, and
what can it lead to?
 Angina pectoris is chest pain caused
by the myocardium being deprived of
 It can lead to a myocardial infarction,
or heart attack