Essential Question Examine the reasons for the USA’s change of attitude towards Japan between 1931 and 1941 Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Review – how far have they come? ◦ Learn about internationalism ◦ Learn about the end of internationalism Success Criteria I can add to my table of causes of War with Japan What has Japan done to anger the international community? League of Nations Collective Security Kellogg-Briand Pact Lytton Report Isolationism Neutrality Acts Stimson Doctrine Tripartite Act Pg. 54~98 ◦ Make sure you are adding to Notes Essential Question ◦ IB Math Notes only = max 5 Textbook only = max 5 Notes + Textbook = 6~7 Established in the Treaty of Versailles, however the US is not a member ◦ Centered around the idea of Collective Security ◦ Ex. 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact Promised not to use war to solve disputes (Japan signed) Remember: Actions have consequences 1932 Lytton Report Problem ◦ Japan should give Manchuria back to China and the League will not recognize Manchukuo ◦ Didn’t England and France gain their empires by force? 1933 – Japan withdraws from the League Impact: Shows the League is weak • Japan continues conquest • Italy noticed Why not a stronger response? ◦ France – benefited from a weak China ◦ England – didn’t have anything to do with the situation ◦ Economy – The Depression meant that Western countries had bigger concerns ◦ Fear of Communism – Japan would stop the spread Isolationism Why? ◦ WW1 – US did not want to get involved in European affairs ◦ Depression – more concerned fixing their own problems (New Deal) ◦ Trade – continued to trade with Japan and actually saw a benefit to Japan taking over parts of China ◦ Non-involvement Stimson Doctrine – will not recognize any violation of Chinese territory Neutrality Acts – US would not supply arms, will not give loans ◦ No Navy – Congress refused to give funding to the development of a Pacific navy US became more aggressive towards Japanese expansionism ◦ Ex. 1939 – “moral embargo” on planes, credit to Japan was stopped ◦ Ex. 1939 – ignored the Neutrality act and gave $25 million to nationalists in China Why? ◦ Sino-Japanese War US had economic interests in China Dec ’37 – Japanese sink USS Paney in the Yangtze R. as it escorted an oil tanker ◦ "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere“ Any country that didn’t want to be included would be an enemy ◦ International Context Hitler’s success in Europe Why? 1940 Tripartite Act (Germany, Italy, Japan) ◦ Hitler recognized the growing US-Japanese tension and feared the US joining the war in Europe on the British side ◦ Japan recognized the threat of the growing US navy in the Pacific; with Nazi success in the war, Japan feared that it would miss out; with the Nazi-Soviet Pact, wanted to get back on Hitler’s good side ◦ Recognize Japan’s right to establish a “New Order” in East Asia ◦ Would declare war on any country, not in the war already, if they attack another Specifically directed at the US, letting them know that if they attack in Europe, they will be at war with Japan Causes of the Mukden Incident 1928-32 Causes of the Causes of Japan’s Sino-Japanese War attack on Pearl 1933-37 Harbor Nationalism Militarism Don’t do yet Political situation in Japan Economic situation in Japan Situation in China Actions of the West Conclusions Complete these sections Essential Question Examine the reasons for the USA’s change of attitude towards Japan between 1931 and 1941 Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Review – Japanese-US relations ◦ Learn about what changed in the 1940s ◦ Complete your table explaining the reaction of the West to Japanese aggression Success Criteria I can complete my table Describe the relationship between the US and Japan ◦ Pre-1938? ◦ Post 1938? ◦ What changed? Matsuoka General Tojo Pg. 54~98 ◦ Make sure you are adding to Notes Essential Question ◦ IB Math Notes only = max 5 Textbook only = max 5 Notes + Textbook = 6~7 Diplomacy and Economic Sanctions had failed to end the Sino-Japanese War Action ◦ Moved Pacific fleet from California to Pearl Harbor Meant to deter the Japanese and support the British Japanese reaction – plan an attack ◦ 1940 – Tripartite Pact made it clear to the Japanese that war was inevitable ◦ Belief was that the US would not stand by and watch Japan take over SE Asia, but they also knew they could not win an all-out war with the US ◦ A surprise attack coordinated with an attack throughout SE Asia would give Japan the resources it would need (oil) and the US would be willing to accept a peace agreement March 1941 – Hitler meets the Japanese foreign minister Matsuoka and urges Japan to attack Singapore ◦ Hitler promises to assist Japan if their actions in Asia cause a war with the US After meeting with Hitler, Matsuoka meets with Stalin and signs a non-aggression pact ◦ Japan can now divert its resources towards SE Asia July 1941 – with the Japanese takeover of Indo-China, the US introduces an oil embargo and freezes all Japanese assets in the US ◦ August – total embargo on all war related equipment US demands that Japan leave China (not Manchuria) and give up on its Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere PM Konoye wanted to avoid war and liked the US proposal ◦ The militants wanted war October – PM Konoye is replaced by General Tojo Nov. 3 – Japanese navy given approval for a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor Causes of the Mukden Incident 1928-32 Causes of the Causes of Japan’s Sino-Japanese War attack on Pearl 1933-37 Harbor Nationalism Militarism Economic situation in Japan Situation in China Actions of the West Conclusions Complete this section Political situation in Japan Essential Question Examine the reasons for the USA’s change of attitude towards Japan between 1931 and 1941 Learning Outcomes - Students will: ◦ Preview – who started WW2? ◦ Learn about the different historiography schools of thought ◦ Relate historiography to their completed table from the previous classes Success Criteria I can fill out a table for the different historiographical schools of thought Who is responsible for starting the war in the Pacific? How much blame should the emperor of Japan receive for starting the war? Left-wing Historian Right-wing Historian Orthodox Revisionist Traditionalist Pg. 54~98 ◦ Make sure you are adding to Notes Essential Question ◦ IB Math Notes only = max 5 Textbook only = max 5 Notes + Textbook = 6~7 War Began Why Historian Left-Wing Right-Wing Orthodox Revisionist Traditionalist Leave 3 lines for each category When Example: Pearl Harbor Left-wing Right-wing ◦ War began: 1931 ◦ Why: militarist capitalist clique started the 15-year war ◦ Historian: Ikuhiko Hata – “The Manchurian incident, the war in China, and the war in the Pacific should not be viewed separately but as one continuous war” ◦ War began: Dec 1941 ◦ Why: “Great East Asian War” – Japan freeing Asia from Western colonialism Ex. Without this, there would be no independence movement after the war ◦ Historian: Masaaki Tanaka and Hirofumi Hayashi Orthodox ◦ When: 1937 ◦ Why: Japanese war of aggression and are solely responsible for the war in the Pacific ◦ Historian: Saburo Ienaga Revisionist ◦ When: Dec 1941 ◦ Why: Japan acted to purge Western influence in Asia and that US wanted war ◦ Historian: JH Boyle Traditionalist ◦ Why: Emperor didn’t want war, but he had no choice but to follow the militarists ◦ Historian: Stephen Large Revisionists ◦ Why: Emperor Hirohito supported the expansionists and could have stepped in and stopped it at anytime, but chose not to ◦ Historian: Sterling Seagrove War Began Why Historian Example: Pearl Harbor The capitalist-militarists in Japan wished to expand their markets/colonies, but the US was getting in the way of this Left-Wing Right-Wing When Why did Pearl Harbor Happen? Orthodox Revisionist Traditionalist What was the emperor’s role? The emperor may have been aware of the attack, but, following the constitution, did not intervene with the gov’t’s decision Causes of the Mukden Incident 1928-32 Causes of the Causes of Japan’s Sino-Japanese War attack on Pearl 1933-37 Harbor Militarism Political situation in Japan Economic situation in Japan Situation in China Actions of the West Conclusions Who said war began here? Nationalism How could you include historiography in your table? What was the West’s reaction to Pearl Harbor? Was it a surprise?