The Five Themes Through World Religions • What do I know about Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? Fill out the KWL chart below in your journal. (Obviously, do not fill out the LEARNED column yet!) What do I KNOW? What do I WANT to know? What have I LEARNED? Introduction to Judaism Introduction to Judaism • People group dedicated to reverence, study and perseverance of a life holy and pleasing to Y-hw-h (God) • Jewish people have been oppressed almost nearly from the beginning of time. Basic Beliefs “But you shall not eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; for in the day that you do eat of it, you shall surely die.” Genesis 2:17 • God created the world GOOD • Humans disobeyed God Original Sin • Adam’s Curse (Genesis 3:14-19) God’s Promise Never to Destroy Again • Noahic Covenant (Story of Noah’s Ark) Abrahamic Covenant "Look up at the heavens and count the stars-if indeed you can count them." Then He said to him, "So shall your offspring be." Genesis 15:5 What could this mean? The Branch of Abraham God’s promise to Abraham—book of Genesis Ishmael Isaac Jacob King David (Tribe of Judah) Muhammad Islam Twelve Tribes of Israel Jesus Christianity Judaism Basic Facts • “Founding Fathers”—Abraham, Jacob, Moses • Founded around 2000 B.C.E. • Founded in Canaan (also known as Israel or Palestine) • Approximately 14 million followers, nearly half of which live in Israel Slavery in Egypt • Moses freed the Israelites from Pharaoh. God sent ten plagues to warn Pharaoh to let the Israelites go…the final one taking the first born son of every Egyptian family. • The angel of death PASSED OVER the homes of all Jewish families this event created the holiday known as PASSOVER in the Jewish tradition. Moses splitting the Red Sea Basic Beliefs Personifies the theme of MOVEMENT as the Israelites migrated through the desert. Mosaic Covenant: The Promised Land The LORD said, "I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt. I have heard them crying out because of their slave drivers, and I am concerned about their suffering. 8 So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey…” Exodus 3:7 • For 40 years the Israelites wandered in the desert as the Lord provided for them. Ten Commandments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Have no other gods before Me Do not worship a graven image Do not take the Lord’s name in vain Keep the Sabbath holy Honor your mother and father Do not murder Do not steal Do not commit adultery Do not give false testimony Do not covet -Found in the Torah/Talmud -Israelites carried the stone tablets in the Ark of the Covenant Foreshadowing… • Do you think the ‘Promised Land’ was free of inhabitants? Messianic Covenant • Promise of “Moshiach”—Messiah The days are coming," declares the LORD , "when I will raise up to David a righteous Branch, a King who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land.” Jeremiah 23:5 What could this mean? Theories Regarding the Messiah • Before the time of the moshiach, there shall be war and suffering (Ezekiel 38:16) • The moshiach will bring about the political and spiritual redemption of the Jewish people by bringing us back to Israel and restoring Jerusalem (Isaiah 11:11-12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4-5). Theories Regarding the Messiah • He will establish a government in Israel that will be the center of all world government, both for Jews and gentiles (Isaiah 2:2-4; 11:10; 42:1). • He will rebuild the Temple and re-establish its worship (Jeremiah 33:18). • He will restore the religious court system of Israel and establish Jewish law as the law of the land (Jeremiah 33:15). Beliefs about G-d • • • • • • • • G-d is Omniscient G-d is Omni-present G-d is Omnipotent G-d is Eternal G-d is neither male nor female G-d is both just and merciful G-d is holy and perfect G-d is the father and King When they get to the promised land… • The Israelites build a huge temple for the Ark of the Covenant • Jewish centers of worship are called synagogues The First Temple The first temple was destroyed by the Babylonians and the Jews were exiled. The second temple was destroyed by the Romans. Western Wall Why would this wall be referred to as the Wailing Wall? The Western Wall Western Wall Video The Western Wall Synagogue Scriptures & Laws • • • • • Torah The Writings The Prophets Ten Commandments 613 additional laws Blessed is the one who does not walk in step with the wicked or stand in the way that sinners take or sit in the company of mockers, but whose delight is in the law of the LORD, and who meditates on his law day and night. -Psalm 1:1-2 The TALMUD is the portable version of scriptures. Dietary Laws (aka Kosher Laws) 1. Certain animals may not be eaten at all (chews cud, split hoof, sea creatures without fins/scales, certain birds, certain insects) Lev. 11:9-46 2. Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and mammals must be killed in accordance with Jewish law. 3. All blood must be drained from the meat (under Rabbinical supervision) or broiled out of it before it is eaten. More Kosher Laws 4. Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten. 5. Meat cannot be eaten with dairy. 6. Eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with either meat or dairy. Kosher Symbols on Food Packages Jewish Culture Historically, because Judaism requires strict adherence to the law and to Jewish customs, whether in the Promised Land or in a place of exile, the Jews set up their own communities to observe the law and religious observances. Branches of Judaism Orthodox Conservative Reformed Orthodox Judaism • • • Conform completely to G-d’s laws Traditional culture with gender roles Rarely associate w/outside world Conservative Judaism • Not a “closed” system like Orthodox • Value tradition; adhere to most laws • “Happy Medium” Reform Judaism • Believe in retaining essential elements of faith that make sense in today’s society • Torah is inspired by G-d but open to interpretation • Emphasize broad moral messages rather than strict adherence to rules Rituals and Celebrations Sabbath Services • Amidah—prayers and praise to G-d • Sh’ma— “Hear O Israel, the Lord is our G-d, the Lord is One.” • Reading from the Torah • Friday services—1-3 hours • Saturday services—3 full hours Passover • Honors the deliverance of Jews from Egyptian slavery • Major Holiday (seven days long) Kosher for Passover Rosh Hashanah • Jewish New Year (Sep or Oct) • Celebration of the Creation of the Earth • No work is performed • Considered a “High Holy Day” Yom Kippur • • • • Day of Atonement Holiest day in entire Jewish calendar No work; must fast Considered a “High Holy Day” Chanukah (Hanukkah) • Festival of Lights (8 days long) • Celebrates victory of the Maccabees over the Syrians • Minor holiday Mezuzah Rituals • Bar Mitzvah (son of the commandment) • Bat Mitzvah (daughter of the commandment) • Marriage Conflict Though Judaism shares some similarities with Christianity and Islam (monotheistic, origins in the Middle East, God of Abraham), the creation of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948 has led to conflict in the region. We will get to this at a later date. Judaism and the Five Themes: Movement Diaspora: Movement of the Jews • After the Early Christian Church began to expand, the Church began to oppress Jewish people in some ways, claiming that the Jews killed the messiah. • Because of the strong cultural connections of the Jewish people, they often had their own way of life, separate from other cultures. Diffusion and Spread • Jews do not seek converts but has spread across the world through Diaspora (scattering). – Diaspora occurred due to persecution and forced exile – Thought to have begun in the 8th-6th century BCE (documented in the Old Testament and other ancient texts) and occurred throughout history until the creation of the nation of Israel in 1948 • What push and pull factors would affect choice of movement For an interactive map, of the Diaspora, click here: www.mccarter.org/Education/mad7/html/7.html Top Ten Jewish Nations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Israel US France Canada United Kingdom Russia Argentina Germany Australia Brazil Essential Question How do Jewish beliefs and practices determine where and how they live? WELCOME! • Answer the following questions, using COMPLETE sentences, in your bellwork journal: 1. What does an effective classroom discussion look and sound like? 2. How is our class as a whole doing with classroom discussion? What is one way we can improve? 3. On a scale from 1-10 (10 being the highest), how would you rate your participation so far in our class discussions? Are you raising your hand, listening to peers, following along on your notes? Or are you blurting out, zoning out, not paying attention, etc? Introduction to Christianity Christianity is the largest religion worldwide with 2 billion followers The Holy Bible • The Bible is considered to be inspired by God and written by many men. • The Bible is a story of God’s redemption for the world. Christians see the Bible as a metanarrative. Or, a story within a story. The overarching theme of the Bible is God’s redemption – even though there are thousands of stories throughout its pages. Christians believe the Old Testament was a prophecy of Jesus Christ • The Bible is split into the Old Testament & the New Testament. • The Old Testament Prophecies about the coming of a Messiah. OT Prophecy Fulfilled Through Christ • Noahic Covenant: – Just as God created a ‘new earth’, this points to Heaven, and the restoration of a new life after death • Abrahamic Covenant: – Now, anyone who accepts Christ is considered a child of Abraham • Mosaic Covenant: – Christians now have the ‘Promised Land’ through Christ, their bodies are now the temple of worship. • Messianic Covenant: – Christ is the Messiah, the Savior of the world. •Why do Christians believe in the need for a savior? Original Sin When sin entered into the world, the perfect relationship between man and God was broken. Now, everyone is born into sin separating people from God. “There is no difference, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” – Romans 3:22-23 God Man The Story of the Gospel • Some people say that Christianity is not a religion – it’s a relationship… • Gospel means good news. • Christians said that God sent his only son to earth to spread the “Good News.” The Holy Trinity God God the Father God the Spirit God the Son (Jesus) No Good Deed Can Earn Your Way into Heaven • “Therefore, no one will be declared righteous in his sight by observing the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of sin.” – Romans 3:20 • How does this belief differ from Islam & Judaism? God sent his Son to Earth • “For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.” – John 3:16-17 • Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” – John 14:6 Claims of Jesus • Jesus claimed to be the “King of the Jews” • Jesus claimed to be God • Jesus claimed to be without sin, the perfect sacrifice • Jesus claimed to be the only way to God • Jesus claimed to be seated in heaven with God •Why would Jews be upset with these claims? • Video What happened next? • Christ was crucified on the cross Hill of Golgotha: Place where Christ was crucified. This is now a very famous pilgrimage site. What happened next? •Christians believe Jesus resurrected from the dead three days later •Symbolizes that death is defeated and sin has no victory through Christ •This is why Christians celebrate Easter Diffusion and Spread Historically, Christianity spread as it became the official religion of various nations. These nations sometimes conquered other nations, thus causing the faith to spread. It also spread via trade routes. Further, Christians actively seek converts and the faith has spread through evangelism and missionary work. 18 Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.” – Matthew 28: 18-19 Paul’s Missionary Journeys Examples of Rituals and Practices • Baptism • Communion • Confession (for Catholics) • Confirmation (certain denominations) Holidays • Easter—celebration of the resurrection of Christ • Christmas— celebration of the birth of Christ Divisions of Christianity • There are three major branches – Roman Catholic – Eastern Orthodox – Protestant Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches formed during the middle ages and Reformation due to disagreements with Catholic teachings and practices. Today, the primary difference between these three branches is that Roman Catholics look to the pope as the head of their church; Orthodox and Protestants do not recognize his authority. Welcome! • Think back to our lesson on Judaism – from what you know what are some of the most important practices/ beliefs of the Jewish people? • Brainstorm what you know about Islam: How do you think these religions are similar to each other? Introduction to Islam The Branch of Abraham God’s promise to Abraham—book of Genesis Ishmael Isaac Jacob Gen 16:9-15 King David (Tribe of Judah) Twelve Tribes of Israel Judaism 2500 BC Muhammad Jesus Islam Christianity 550AD 30 AD Basic Facts • Tenets: – – – • • • is monotheistic: or believes in only ONE god. belief in the Prophet Muhammad and one God called Allah adheres to the Five Pillars of Islam; the Sunnah guides Muslims’ behavior Supreme Being: Allah Sacred Text: The Qur’an 1.5 billion adherents Beliefs about Allah • • • • • Creator Merciful Holy Source of Peace Mighty/Strong •Sustainer/Provider •All-Knowing •All-Forgiving •Loving •There is no other God Beliefs About God • Ultimate Sin: “shirk”—to associate other deities with God • God is near “I am indeed close to my people. I listen to the prayer of every supplicant when he calls on Me. Let them also…listen to My call, and believe in Me that they may walk in the right way.” (2:186) The Qur’an Named Prophets in the Qur’an • • • • • • • • Adam Elisha Job David Ezekiel Jesus Aaron Joseph •Abraham •Moses •Enoch •Noah •Isaac •Solomon •Ishmael •Ezra •Lot •Jonah •John the Baptist •Zechariah •Muhammad The Qur’an • • • • Final Word of God Authoritative only in Arabic Protected from change/corruption Supercedes previous revelations (such as the Old and New Testaments) • Only text Muslims turn to today • 114 chapters/varying lengths Basic Facts • Holy Land: – – Mecca Additional pilgrimage sites include the Al Quds mount in Jerusalem (The Dome of the Rock) and the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia • Place of Worship: Mosque Prayer towers are called minarets Islam and the Five Themes: Place Dome of the Rock Originally a small prayer house built over the second Jewish Temple, but it has been renovated to be one of the most elaborate mosques; The Al-aqsa Mosque Dome of the Rock and Western Wall The Islamic Law • Also known as the Sharia – explains the code of conduct and way of life for Muslims. Includes laws on crime, politics, marriage, hygiene, diet and prayer. • The Middle Eastern countries are predominately Muslim Nations meaning that their culture is developed around the Sharia The Five Pillars of Islam Five Pillars of Islam 1. Confession of Faith: “There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Prophet of God” 2. Ritual Prayer (5x/day) – video… Muslims pray facing Mecca and pray typically in lines to show unity and equality. Five Pillars of Islam 3. Almsgiving: giving money to the poor (2.5% of wealth) 4. Fasting During Ramadan • 9th month on Islamic calendar (lunar calendar) • Fasting is from sun up to sun down • Intended to teach patience, modesty, and spirituality • Is ended with the Festival of Eid ul-Fitr (the Festival of Breaking the Fast) Festival of Eid ul-Fitr 5. Hajj: the holy pilgrimage to Mecca The Hajj • Shed evidence of wealth/poverty • Dressed in white The Hajj • Day One—travel from Mecca to Mina • Day Two—Day of Arafat (forgiveness and mercy) • Day Three— – Throwing stones at pillars that represent seductions of Satan – Slaughter animal and give meat to poor. – Seven turns around the Ka’aba – Trek between to small hills to honor Hajar’s (Hagar) search for water Video of Prayer Muslims Believe… • That the Ka’ba was erected by Adam • Destroyed in the flood • Rebuilt by Abraham, Ishmael, and Muhammad What’s inside the Ka’ba? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. two pillars a table on the side to put items like perfume two lantern-type lamps hanging from the ceiling the space can accommodate about 50 people no electric lights inside walls and the floors are of the marble no windows inside - there is only one door the upper inside walls are covered with a curtain Rituals and Practices: Ablution • Must cleanse body before each prayer, starting with right hand side of body – – – – – – – – Hands Mouth Nose Face Arms to the elbows Head, including ears Feet Must completely shower after sexual contact and at end of menstrual period and then wash as above Branches of Islam Separate branches emerged over who should lead the faith after the Prophet’s death • Sunni—most qualified should be selected to lead – Today, this 90% of Muslims • Shi’ia (Shi’ite)—Muslim leadership should stay in Muhammad’s family – Today, this is 10% of Muslims Diffusion and Spread • Historically, Islam spread as it became the official religion of various nations. These nations sometimes conquered other nations thus causing the faith to spread. It also spread via trade routes. Muslims actively seek converts and the faith has spread through evangelism Example of Conflict Though Islam shares some similarities with Christianity and Judaism (monotheistic, origins in the Middle East, God of Abraham), there has been periods of conflict including the present-day conflict in the Middle East; there is also present-day conflict between the two branches of Islam. Persecution • When the world was developing – different regions of Europe and the Middle East were characterized by their religion, which greatly shaped law, tradition and government. • There was a search for new wealth but also new converts…and the race between Judaism, Islam and Christianity led to very brutal attacks against one another, all in the name of “God” The Crusades • Christians wanted to regain control of the Holy Land…this began The Crusades, which was ordered by the Pope • The fight for economic and religious reasons led to many deaths Remembering 9/11 Compare and Contrast How are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam similar? How are they different?