The Five Themes Through World
• What do I know about
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?
Fill out the KWL chart below in your journal.
(Obviously, do not fill out the LEARNED column yet!) 
What do I KNOW?
What do I WANT
to know?
What have I
Introduction to Judaism
Introduction to Judaism
• People group dedicated to reverence, study and
perseverance of a life holy and pleasing to Y-hw-h (God)
• Jewish people have been oppressed almost
nearly from the beginning of time.
Basic Beliefs
“But you shall not eat of the tree of the
knowledge of good and evil; for in the day
that you do eat of it, you shall surely die.”
Genesis 2:17
• God created the world GOOD
• Humans disobeyed God 
Original Sin
• Adam’s Curse (Genesis 3:14-19)
God’s Promise Never to
Destroy Again
• Noahic Covenant (Story of Noah’s Ark)
Abrahamic Covenant
"Look up at the heavens and
count the stars-if indeed you
can count them." Then He
said to him, "So shall your
offspring be." Genesis 15:5
What could this mean?
The Branch of Abraham
God’s promise to Abraham—book of Genesis
King David
(Tribe of Judah)
Twelve Tribes of
Basic Facts
• “Founding Fathers”—Abraham, Jacob, Moses
• Founded around 2000 B.C.E.
• Founded in Canaan (also known as Israel or
• Approximately 14 million followers, nearly half
of which live in Israel
Slavery in Egypt
• Moses freed the Israelites from Pharaoh. God
sent ten plagues to warn Pharaoh to let the
Israelites go…the final one taking the first born
son of every Egyptian family.
• The angel of death PASSED OVER the homes
of all Jewish families  this event created the
holiday known as PASSOVER in the Jewish
Moses splitting the Red Sea
Basic Beliefs
Personifies the theme of MOVEMENT as the Israelites
migrated through the desert.
Mosaic Covenant: The Promised
The LORD said, "I have indeed seen the
misery of my people in Egypt. I have
heard them crying out because of their
slave drivers, and I am concerned about
their suffering. 8 So I have come down
to rescue them from the hand of the
Egyptians and to bring them up out of
that land into a good and spacious
land, a land flowing with milk and
honey…” Exodus 3:7
For 40 years the Israelites
wandered in the desert as the
Lord provided for them.
Ten Commandments
Have no other gods before Me
Do not worship a graven image
Do not take the Lord’s name in vain
Keep the Sabbath holy
Honor your mother and father
Do not murder
Do not steal
Do not commit adultery
Do not give false testimony
Do not covet
-Found in the Torah/Talmud
-Israelites carried the stone tablets in the
Ark of the Covenant
• Do you think the ‘Promised Land’ was free of
Messianic Covenant
• Promise of “Moshiach”—Messiah
The days are coming," declares the LORD ,
"when I will raise up to David a righteous Branch,
a King who will reign wisely and do what is just and right in the land.”
Jeremiah 23:5
What could this mean?
Theories Regarding the Messiah
• Before the time of the moshiach, there shall be war and suffering
(Ezekiel 38:16)
• The moshiach will bring about the political and spiritual
redemption of the Jewish people by bringing us back to Israel
and restoring Jerusalem (Isaiah 11:11-12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3;
Hosea 3:4-5).
Theories Regarding the Messiah
• He will establish a government in Israel that will be the center of
all world government, both for Jews and gentiles (Isaiah 2:2-4;
11:10; 42:1).
• He will rebuild the Temple and re-establish its worship (Jeremiah
• He will restore the religious court system of Israel and establish
Jewish law as the law of the land (Jeremiah 33:15).
Beliefs about G-d
G-d is Omniscient
G-d is Omni-present
G-d is Omnipotent
G-d is Eternal
G-d is neither male nor female
G-d is both just and merciful
G-d is holy and perfect
G-d is the father and King
When they get to the promised
• The Israelites build a huge temple for the Ark of
the Covenant
• Jewish centers of worship are called
The First Temple
The first temple was destroyed by the Babylonians and the Jews
were exiled. The second temple was destroyed by the Romans.
Western Wall
Why would this wall be referred to as the Wailing Wall?
The Western Wall
Western Wall Video
The Western Wall
Scriptures & Laws
The Writings
The Prophets
Ten Commandments
613 additional laws
Blessed is the one
who does not walk in step with the wicked
or stand in the way that sinners take
or sit in the company of mockers,
but whose delight is in the law of the LORD,
and who meditates on his law day and night.
-Psalm 1:1-2
The TALMUD is the portable version of
Dietary Laws
(aka Kosher Laws)
1. Certain animals may not be eaten at all (chews cud, split
hoof, sea creatures without fins/scales, certain birds,
certain insects) Lev. 11:9-46
2. Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and
mammals must be killed in accordance with Jewish law.
3. All blood must be drained from the meat (under
Rabbinical supervision) or broiled out of it before it is
More Kosher Laws
4. Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten.
5. Meat cannot be eaten with dairy.
6. Eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with
either meat or dairy.
Kosher Symbols on Food Packages
Jewish Culture
Historically, because Judaism requires strict
adherence to the law and to Jewish customs,
whether in the Promised Land or in a place of
exile, the Jews set up their own communities to
observe the law and religious observances.
Branches of Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
Conform completely to
G-d’s laws
Traditional culture with
gender roles
Rarely associate
w/outside world
Conservative Judaism
• Not a “closed” system like Orthodox
• Value tradition; adhere to most laws
• “Happy Medium”
Reform Judaism
• Believe in retaining essential elements of faith
that make sense in today’s society
• Torah is inspired by G-d but open to
• Emphasize broad moral messages rather than
strict adherence to rules
Rituals and Celebrations
Sabbath Services
• Amidah—prayers and praise
to G-d
• Sh’ma— “Hear O Israel, the
Lord is our G-d, the Lord is
• Reading from the Torah
• Friday services—1-3 hours
• Saturday services—3 full
• Honors the
deliverance of Jews
from Egyptian
• Major Holiday (seven
days long)
Kosher for Passover
Rosh Hashanah
• Jewish New Year
(Sep or Oct)
• Celebration of the
Creation of the
• No work is
• Considered a
“High Holy Day”
Yom Kippur
Day of Atonement
Holiest day in entire Jewish calendar
No work; must fast
Considered a “High Holy Day”
Chanukah (Hanukkah)
• Festival of Lights
(8 days long)
• Celebrates victory
of the Maccabees
over the Syrians
• Minor holiday
• Bar Mitzvah (son of
the commandment)
• Bat Mitzvah
(daughter of the
• Marriage
Though Judaism shares some similarities with
Christianity and Islam (monotheistic, origins in
the Middle East, God of Abraham), the
creation of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948
has led to conflict in the region.
We will get to this at a later date.
Judaism and the Five Themes:
Diaspora: Movement of the Jews
• After the Early Christian Church began to
expand, the Church began to oppress Jewish
people in some ways, claiming that the Jews
killed the messiah.
• Because of the strong cultural connections of
the Jewish people, they often had their own way
of life, separate from other cultures.
Diffusion and Spread
• Jews do not seek converts but has spread across the
world through Diaspora (scattering).
– Diaspora occurred due to persecution and forced exile
– Thought to have begun in the 8th-6th century BCE
(documented in the Old Testament and other ancient texts)
and occurred throughout history until the creation of the
nation of Israel in 1948
• What push and pull factors would affect choice of
For an interactive map, of the Diaspora, click here:
Top Ten Jewish Nations
United Kingdom
Essential Question
How do Jewish beliefs and practices determine
where and how they live?
• Answer the following questions, using COMPLETE
sentences, in your bellwork journal:
1. What does an effective classroom discussion look and
sound like?
2. How is our class as a whole doing with classroom
discussion? What is one way we can improve?
3. On a scale from 1-10 (10 being the highest), how
would you rate your participation so far in our class
discussions? Are you raising your hand, listening to
peers, following along on your notes? Or are you
blurting out, zoning out, not paying attention, etc?
Introduction to Christianity
Christianity is the largest religion
worldwide with 2 billion followers
The Holy Bible
• The Bible is considered to be inspired by God
and written by many men.
• The Bible is a story of God’s redemption for the
world. Christians see the Bible as a
metanarrative. Or, a story within a story. The
overarching theme of the Bible is God’s
redemption – even though there are thousands
of stories throughout its pages.
Christians believe the Old Testament
was a prophecy of Jesus Christ
• The Bible is split into the Old Testament &
the New Testament.
• The Old Testament Prophecies about the
coming of a Messiah.
OT Prophecy Fulfilled Through Christ
• Noahic Covenant:
– Just as God created a ‘new earth’, this points to Heaven, and
the restoration of a new life after death
• Abrahamic Covenant:
– Now, anyone who accepts Christ is considered a child of
• Mosaic Covenant:
– Christians now have the ‘Promised Land’ through Christ,
their bodies are now the temple of worship.
• Messianic Covenant:
– Christ is the Messiah, the Savior of the world.
•Why do Christians
believe in the need for a
Original Sin
When sin entered into the
world, the perfect
relationship between man
and God was broken. Now,
everyone is born into sin
separating people from God.
“There is no difference, for all have sinned
and fall short of the glory of God” – Romans
The Story of the Gospel
• Some people say that Christianity is not a
religion – it’s a relationship…
• Gospel means good news.
• Christians said that God sent his only son to
earth to spread the “Good News.”
The Holy Trinity
God the
God the
God the Son
No Good Deed Can Earn Your
Way into Heaven
• “Therefore, no one will be declared
righteous in his sight by observing the law;
rather, through the law we become
conscious of sin.” – Romans 3:20
• How does this belief differ from Islam & Judaism?
God sent his Son to Earth
• “For God so loved the world that he gave his
one and only Son, that whoever believes in him
shall not perish but have eternal life. For God
did not send his Son into the world to condemn
the world, but to save the world through him.” –
John 3:16-17
• Jesus answered, "I am the way and the truth and
the life. No one comes to the Father except
through me.” – John 14:6
Claims of Jesus
• Jesus claimed to be the “King of the Jews”
• Jesus claimed to be God
• Jesus claimed to be without sin, the perfect
• Jesus claimed to be the only way to God
• Jesus claimed to be seated in heaven with God
•Why would Jews be
upset with these
• Video
What happened next?
• Christ was crucified on the cross
Hill of Golgotha: Place where Christ was crucified. This is now a very famous pilgrimage site.
What happened next?
•Christians believe Jesus resurrected
from the dead three days later
•Symbolizes that death is defeated and
sin has no victory through Christ
•This is why Christians celebrate Easter
Diffusion and Spread
Historically, Christianity spread as it became the official
religion of various nations. These nations sometimes
conquered other nations, thus causing the faith to
spread. It also spread via trade routes. Further,
Christians actively seek converts and the faith has
spread through evangelism and missionary work.
18 Then Jesus came to them and said, “All authority in heaven and on earth
has been given to me. 19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations,
baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy
Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.
And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.” – Matthew 28:
Paul’s Missionary Journeys
Examples of Rituals and Practices
• Baptism
• Communion
• Confession (for
• Confirmation (certain
• Easter—celebration of
the resurrection of
• Christmas—
celebration of the birth
of Christ
Divisions of Christianity
• There are three major branches
– Roman Catholic
– Eastern Orthodox
– Protestant
Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches formed during the
middle ages and Reformation due to disagreements with
Catholic teachings and practices.
Today, the primary difference between these three branches is
that Roman Catholics look to the pope as the head of their
church; Orthodox and Protestants do not recognize his
• Think back to our lesson on Judaism – from
what you know what are some of the most
important practices/ beliefs of the Jewish
• Brainstorm what you know about Islam: How
do you think these religions are similar to each
Introduction to Islam
The Branch of Abraham
God’s promise to Abraham—book of Genesis
Gen 16:9-15
King David
(Tribe of Judah)
Twelve Tribes of
2500 BC
30 AD
Basic Facts
is monotheistic: or believes in only ONE god.
belief in the Prophet Muhammad and one God
called Allah
adheres to the Five Pillars of Islam; the Sunnah
guides Muslims’ behavior
Supreme Being: Allah
Sacred Text: The Qur’an
1.5 billion adherents
Beliefs about Allah
Source of Peace
•There is no other God
Beliefs About God
• Ultimate Sin: “shirk”—to associate other deities
with God
• God is near
“I am indeed close to my people. I listen to the
prayer of every supplicant when he calls on Me.
Let them also…listen to My call, and believe in
Me that they may walk in the right way.” (2:186)
The Qur’an
Named Prophets in the Qur’an
•John the
The Qur’an
Final Word of God
Authoritative only in Arabic
Protected from change/corruption
Supercedes previous revelations (such as the
Old and New Testaments)
• Only text Muslims turn to today
• 114 chapters/varying lengths
Basic Facts
Holy Land:
Additional pilgrimage sites
include the Al Quds mount
in Jerusalem (The Dome of
the Rock) and the city of
Medina in Saudi Arabia
• Place of Worship: Mosque
Prayer towers are called minarets
Islam and the Five Themes: Place
Dome of the Rock
Originally a small prayer house built over the second Jewish
Temple, but it has been renovated to be one of the most
elaborate mosques; The Al-aqsa Mosque
Dome of the Rock and Western Wall
The Islamic Law
• Also known as the Sharia – explains the code of
conduct and way of life for Muslims. Includes
laws on crime, politics, marriage, hygiene, diet
and prayer.
• The Middle Eastern countries are predominately
Muslim Nations meaning that their culture is
developed around the Sharia
The Five Pillars of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
1. Confession of
Faith: “There is no
God but God;
Muhammad is the
Prophet of God”
2. Ritual Prayer (5x/day) – video… Muslims
pray facing Mecca and pray typically in
lines to show unity and equality.
Five Pillars of Islam
3. Almsgiving: giving money to the
poor (2.5% of wealth)
4. Fasting During Ramadan
• 9th month on Islamic calendar (lunar calendar)
• Fasting is from sun up to sun down
• Intended to teach patience, modesty, and
• Is ended with the Festival of Eid ul-Fitr (the
Festival of Breaking the Fast)
Festival of Eid ul-Fitr
5. Hajj: the holy pilgrimage
to Mecca
The Hajj
• Shed evidence of
• Dressed in white
The Hajj
• Day One—travel from Mecca to
• Day Two—Day of Arafat
(forgiveness and mercy)
• Day Three—
– Throwing stones at pillars that
represent seductions of Satan
– Slaughter animal and give
meat to poor.
– Seven turns around the Ka’aba
– Trek between to small hills to
honor Hajar’s (Hagar) search
for water
Video of Prayer
Muslims Believe…
• That the Ka’ba was
erected by Adam
• Destroyed in the flood
• Rebuilt by Abraham,
Ishmael, and
What’s inside the Ka’ba?
two pillars
a table on the side to put items like perfume
two lantern-type lamps hanging from the ceiling
the space can accommodate about 50 people
no electric lights inside
walls and the floors are of the marble
no windows inside - there is only one door
the upper inside walls are covered with a curtain
Rituals and Practices: Ablution
• Must cleanse body before each prayer, starting with
right hand side of body
Arms to the elbows
Head, including ears
Must completely shower after sexual contact and at end of
menstrual period and then wash as above
Branches of Islam
Separate branches emerged over who should
lead the faith after the Prophet’s death
• Sunni—most qualified should be selected to
– Today, this 90% of Muslims
• Shi’ia (Shi’ite)—Muslim leadership should
stay in Muhammad’s family
– Today, this is 10% of Muslims
Diffusion and Spread
Historically, Islam spread as it became the
official religion of various nations. These
nations sometimes conquered other nations
thus causing the faith to spread. It also spread
via trade routes. Muslims actively seek
converts and the faith has spread through
Example of Conflict
Though Islam shares some similarities with
Christianity and Judaism (monotheistic, origins
in the Middle East, God of Abraham), there
has been periods of conflict including the
present-day conflict in the Middle East; there
is also present-day conflict between the two
branches of Islam.
• When the world was developing – different
regions of Europe and the Middle East were
characterized by their religion, which greatly
shaped law, tradition and government.
• There was a search for new wealth but also new
converts…and the race between Judaism, Islam
and Christianity led to very brutal attacks against
one another, all in the name of “God”
The Crusades
• Christians wanted to regain
control of the Holy
Land…this began The
Crusades, which was
ordered by the Pope
• The fight for economic and
religious reasons led to many
Remembering 9/11
Compare and Contrast
How are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam similar?
How are they different?