How students learn to read from grades K - 4 Presented by Lisa Papazian Instructional Coach Shrewsbury Public Schools Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension The ability to identify, hear, and work with the smallest units of sound known as phonemes. Ex: cat = /c/ /a/ /t/ phone = /f/ /o/ /n/ Strong indicator of reading success Play word games out loud – focus on SOUND Rhyme words – nonsense words are OK cat, mat, lat, nat, etc. Change words into other words Say “cat”. Change the /t/ to a /p/. What’s the new word?” Have child break words into sounds What sounds are in cat? Have /c / /a/ /t/ child blend sounds into word What word does /c/ /a/ /t/ make? The relationships between letters and sounds Ex: /f/ can be made with “f” or “ph” Usually explicitly taught between K – 2, but revisited at higher grades Notice words that are spelled the same game, name, same Help your child to see smaller words or word parts in larger words Snowboarding = snow, board, -ing Help your child make connections between known and unknown words detective, detection Increasing word knowledge in speaking, listening, and identifying the meaning of new words when reading. Taught throughout the grades as students continuously expand their vocabulary Read to your child books that are a little above their independent reading level. The language in books is much richer than everyday language. Help your child figure out what new words mean by “reading around the word” Ex: “The colossal building towered over us.” The ability to read smoothly, with expression, and for longer periods of time Strong indicator of reading success. Impacts reading attitude. Allows the reader to concentrate on the meaning of text. Encourage your child to read “just-right” texts that can be read easily, quickly, and accurately most of the time Encourage re-reading of shorter texts like articles, picture books, etc. to practice expression Like many other things, the more you read, the better you get! The ability to understand what you read including retelling a story, finding a theme, inferring a character’s feelings, and other strategies. Becomes Many more sophisticated over time different strategies are used flexibly, depending upon the type of text Comprehension Strategies: Making Connections Creating Images Using Fix-up Strategies Questioning Determining Importance Author’s Message Making Inferences Synthesizing Talk about books with your child Encourage re-reading for meaning Model how you react when you don’t understand Ask questions about books to check your child’s understanding Encourage your child to re-tell what they have read DRA (Developmental Reading Assessment) Checks for fluency, accuracy, and comprehension Goal = Find Instructional Level Teacher determines focus for instruction Student can read BY THEMSELVES with success 98% accuracy AND student can understand what they read Slightly This below instructional level is what they should be reading AT HOME Just above independent Student may struggle with fluency or comprehension Need teacher guidance to be successful I PICK Purpose – Why am I reading this? Interest – Am I interested in this book? Comprehend – Can I understand the book? Know – Do I know most of the words? Remember the goal is independence! Meaningful literacy activities: Guided Reading Reading to Self Reading to Someone Word Work Work on Writing Listening to Reading The teacher meets with a small group (usually no more than 5) students to work on similar reading skills. Not like “round robin reading” where students take turns while others listen Work on many different skills with the same or different books Students work on independent level text or text they have read with a teacher Student may respond to text in writing Goal = practice fluency and build stamina Students work in pairs either reading the same book or reading from different books, taking turns while reading Students ask questions to check for understanding Goal = practice fluency and comprehension Students practice making or writing words that usually follow a spelling pattern or rule Students often write words they are working with Different students may have different words Goal = improve spelling, reading, and vocabulary Students may respond to poetry, write friendly letters, respond to reading, or continue writing from writer’s workshop Goal = Increase writing stamina, develop reading/writing connection Students listen to texts that are recorded or listen to an adult reading to them. They may or may not respond to their listening in writing. Goal = hear fluent reading models, increase listening comprehension, enjoyment of text 1. Make reading a priority! 1. Help your child choose “just-right” books. 1. Discuss books together. 1. Tell your child about a book you’re reading. 1. Remember there is more than 1 way to “read”.