Inequalities of Gender and Age

Inequalities of Gender and Age
Kat, Sarah, Jessica,
Lauren and Emily
Sex and Gender Identity (Section 1)
Sex- the biological
distinction between male
and female.
Biological determinismprinciple that behavioral
differences are the result of
inherited physical
Gender Identity- a sense of
being male or female based
on learned cultural values.
Males are assumed to be more
naturally more aggressive
Females are assumes to be
built for providing and
Females are believed to be
naturally more passive than
males and in greater need of
Sociologists are part of an
ongoing debate concerning
reasons for gender differences
Recent research indicates that the brains of
men and women are slightly different in
Men and women in a bunch of different
cultures are associated with some distinctly
different ways of behaving.
The majority of sociologists argue that
gender-related behavior is not primarily the
result of biology.
Though there has been much research,
behavioral differences between the sexes
have not been able to prove that any
particular behavior has a biological cause.
Biological characteristics can also be
modified through social influences.
Human behavior is the result of multiple
Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
(section 2)
Functionalists argue that any
pattern of behavior that does
not benefit society will become
unimportant. According to
functionalism, the diversion of
responsibilities between males
and females survived because
it benefited human living.
Today, functionalists recognize
that the traditional division of
labor has created problems, or
dysfunctions for modern
Conflict and Theory Gender
According to conflict theory:
It is men’s advantage to prevent women from
gaining access to political, economic and social
resources. If men can prevent women from
developing their potential. They can maintain the
status quo. By keeping the traditional division of
labor intact, men can preserve the privileges they
Symbolic Interactions and Gender
Symbolic integrationists focus on how
boys and girls learn to act the way they
are “supposed to act”.
Gender socialization: the social
process of learning how to act like a
boy or girl.
Gender socialization at:
Home: from birth, parents contribute
to this by dressing their children in
pink/blue clothing, action
figures/dolls, ect.
School: boys are expected to be
more assertive (ex. Yelling out
answers is more expected), while
girls are expected to be reserved
and raise their hands
Peer Groups: teens who most
closely mirror traditional gender
roles (male football players, girl
cheerleaders) are generally given
the greatest respect, whereas
“feminine boys” and “masculine
girls” are given a lower status
Gender Inequality (section 3)
Sexism- a set of
beliefs, attitudes,
norms, and values used
to justify gender
Occupational sex
segregation- the
concentration of women
in lower-status
Sex discrimination disappearing?
Sex discrimination is and isn’t disappearing. Some segments
of American society have had more positive attitudes towards
women, though the negativity still occurs.
The educational aspect of women working has increased as
well. Though they are beginning to increase their work level,
their jobs are still lower-status occupations. Women now work
about seven days to earn as much as men earn in five days.
As of race and ethnicity, white women earn 82 percent of what
men earn, African American women earn 71 percent, Asian
women earn the highest, and Latino women the lowest.
Occupational and Economic Inequality
Women are also completely forgot about through
politics, and laws. All of the law makings and laws
are completely sexual bias against the political
power of women and men. There are differences by
gender in even criminal law as well.
Women appear to be participating in elective politics
at an increasing rate. Although women constitute
more then half the population, they hold a relatively
small proportion of important political positions.
Ageism (section 4)
Age satisfaction: the unequal
distribution of scarce resources
(power, wealth and prestige)
based on age
Ageism: a set of beliefs,
attitudes, norms and values
used to justify prejudice and
discrimination against a
particular age group
Elderly people in society are treated according to the
role the aged play in society
In agricultural societies, elder males usually play
important roles, such as the role of priest or elder
The longer one lived the more likely he or she was
chosen to go to heaven
Attitudes about aging changed greatly as
industrialization changed the nature of work
Since modern societies were
changing rapidly, younger
workers were more likely to
possess the current skills
needed in the workplace
As individuals get older their
skills are more likely to be out
of date
Men have greater difficulty in
older age than women because
they have been socialized in a
culture that encourages men to
identify strongly with work while
they are younger, but denies
them a sense of value after
Like racism, ageism involves creating
negative stereotypes
Most old people are not senile or forgetful
Most elderly people are able to learn new
things and adapt to change
Some older people do fit one or more of
these stereotypes but so do young people
Inequality in America’s Elderly
Population (section 5)
Elderly people are seen as a minority group
America’s public has a negative view of elderly
Poverty rates are measure differently for older
people because the federal government assumes
they need less money to live on
9.8% of elderly people live in poverty
If measured by standards for younger age categories 15%
of the elderly live in poverty
Economic Stability
Only a small percentage of
elderly people are wealthy
Elderly women are most
likely to live in poverty
because as a young girl they
were not encouraged to
work, so they are unable to
support themselves
Elderly people are better off
than they were 4 decades
ago but there is still much
improvement needed
Americans aged 65+ are the
most active voters in
presidential and congressional
Lack of unity in voting of
elderly people prevents them
from achieving power
Interest groups: organized to
influence political decision
Jessica- 10.3 and
Kat- 10.5
Sarah- 10.4 and
Emily- 10.1 and
Lauren- 10.2 and