6th Grade Social Studies end of semester exam-Study Guide Name_______________________ I. History 1. Who were the first inhabitants of Australia? People who migrated from Asia 2. What did the British government originally use the colony of Australia for? To keep prisoners 3. What were the major causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917? Differences among social and economic classes in Russia, withdrawal from WWI, poverty, starvation, overthrow of the czar, civil war and communism 4. The African slave trade grew because European nations wanted the captured Africans to do what? Work on plantations 5. What were the reasons for the establishment of European overseas colonies? God-spreading Christianity, Gold-gaining natural resources, land, and trading partners, Glory-Land and fame 6. Who helped Portugal take an early lead in exploration by providing money to study navigation, develop better boats, and encourage voyages along the coast of Africa in the 1400’s? Prince Henry 7. Which two superpowers rose after WWII? Soviet Union & The United States 8. The first Australians were nomadic hunters and gatherers. When Europeans reached Australia, what did they call these dark−skinned people they encountered? Aborigines. II. Government 9. How are parliamentary democracies different from presidential democracies? The head of the government is a member of the legislature & is elected by the legislature. 10. What is a basic way citizens of a democratic nation can influence the government? Voting 11. Which type of government would most likely abolish all opposing political parties, the direct election of leaders, and free speech? Autocratic 12. In which system of government does the legislature elect the executive leader of the government? Parliamentary democracy 13.Which European countries have parliamentary democracies? Germany & UK 14. Australia’s government power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. Name the type of government. Federal 15. The leader of the Parliament in countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom is called what? Prime Minister 16. Is the leader of the UK directly chosen by the people? No 17. Which type of government is described below? Autocracy Russian czars centralized power, including control of the courts, in the hands of one leader. They believed any other kind of government would lead to chaos and the breakdown of the Russian empire. 18. What role do citizens have in the type of government mentioned above? III. Economics 19. What was an economic cooperation among Europeans nations that started in the late 1900’s? European Union 20. What are some of the benefits member countries of the EU have? Free trade-The exchange of goods is easier Travel and moving between EU countries is unrestricted People can work in other EU countries Shared currency 21. What was a goal of the EU that would make trade easier between member countries? A single currency (Euro) 22. The economic system of communist countries is most closely related to which economic system? Command 23. What might be a result of a country not investing in human capital? Workers who are not educated, skilled, and healthy are less productive 24. Describe a market economy. A person can start any legal business and charge any price. Buyers and sellers answer the economic questions of what, how, and for whom to produce based on supply and demand. 26. If your business was a popcorn stand, the stand and the popcorn popper are examples of which factor of production? Capital Resources 27. Define tariff. A tax on imported goods 28. Because most economies have characteristics of both command economy and a market economy, they are called what? mixed 29. How are items exchanged in a traditional economic system? Bartering 30. Name the four types of trade barriers and explain what each means. Physical-A mountain range, desert, or raging river Embargo-Completely stopping trade with another country Tariff-A tax on imported goods and services Quota-A limit on the number of items imported from another country 31. What is an example of a company investing in capital goods? Constructing a new factory, buying new equipment or machinery, buying new desks or chairs. 32. What is one of the main reasons Australia is so close to being a market economy? The percentage of industries that are privately owned 33. Identifies the following geographic features on the map. Scandinavian Peninsula, English Channel, Alps, Mediterranean Sea IV. Geography 34. Label the places numbered on the map . Use the map below to answer question # 35 35. Where do most Australians live? The eastern coastal areas of Australia are highly populated. 36. Why are Russia’s natural resources not being used like they could be? The harsh, cold climate 37. Why is Great Britain’s navy so important based on its geography? Its geographic location, it’s surrounded by water 38. How has language influenced Europe? Having many languages contributes to cultural diversity in Europe. 40. What are the main results of acid rain in Europe, especially coming from Germany? More than half of Germany’s trees have been damaged or killed/diseased forests. The pollution is killing all life in rivers, lakes, and streams Brick and stonework buildings are being eaten away 41. The three main religious groups in Europe are? Christianity, Islam, and Judaism 42. Why was Chernobyl, Ukraine, abandoned? The nuclear power plant exploded and radiation levels were unsafe.