Six Principles of Special Education

EDUC 2301: Introduction to Special Populations
Nita Thomason
• A lesson is the smallest individual piece of a
concept, theme, or topic to be taught
• A lesson should only include one element to
avoid confusion or overload
• Once students have mastered a lesson, the
teacher can move on to the next piece
• A lesson is NOT necessarily what can be
covered in 45 minutes or bell-to-bell
• Individual lessons make up a unit
• Adding fractions (NOT fractions)
• Mimicry (NOT evolution)
• Comma placement (NOT punctuation)
• Battle of the Alamo (NOT Texas Indep.)
• Vowels (NOT the alphabet)
• Various models for lesson design exist
• Most common is “The Hunter Model”
• More that just the grid-paper found in teacher
plan books
• Some schools have a specific format or form
to use
• First-Class Teacher p37 is basic
Anticipatory Set (Focus)
Objective (& TEKS)
Instructional Strategies
 Instructional Input
 Modeling
 Checking for Understanding
 Guided Practice
 Independent Practice
• Closure
• Assessment
• Anticipatory Set (Focus)
 A short activity or prompt that focuses the
students’ attention before the actual lesson
begins that is related to the lesson topic
 Examples:
A song, a brain-teaser, overhead
problems, etc.
• Purpose
 The “why” for the lesson. Why do students
need to learn the content of the lesson. This
is where you relate the lesson content to the
students’ interests or prior knowledge.
• Objective
• The “what” for the lesson. What is(are) the
expectation(s) for the student. What will they
learn or be able to do as a result of the
• Daily/Lesson objectives should align with
your long-range goals and district curriculum
and the TEKS
• Example: The student will be able to correctly
identify at least 45 of the 50 U.S. State
Capitals on the unit exam.
• TEKS (Objective)
 In Texas, you must list the TEKS addressed in
the lesson alongside the objective(s).
 If you can’t find a corresponding TEKS for your
objective, then DON’T teach it.
 Cite your TEKS as below:
6th Grade Mathematics: 111.22(b)(9)(B) – “Find
the probability of a simple event and it’s
compliment and describe the relationship
between the two.”
• Parts of a Good Objective
Conditions – under which the behavior is to be
 Behavioral Verb – action word that connotes an
observable student behavior
 Criteria – specifies how well the student must
perform the behavior
• Instructional Strategies
 Specific methods by which the teacher will
get the objectives of the lesson across to
the student.
 Almost every strategy will fall into one of
several broad categories
 Not all types of strategies will necessarily
be used in each lesson.
• Instructional Strategies
 Instructional Input (ii)
Any strategy where the teacher directly
imparts key knowledge to students
 Examples:
Lectures, hand-outs,
instructions, filmstrips, etc.
• Instructional Strategies
 Modeling (m)
Any strategy where the teacher shows in
graphic form or physically demonstrates
what is expected of students
• Instructional Strategies
– Checking for Understanding (cu)
Any strategy that allows the teacher to
informally determine if students have “got it
Examples: Question & Answer, Pop Quiz,
Hovering, etc.
• Instructional Strategies
– Guided Practice (gp)
Any strategy where the teacher leads the
students through the steps necessary to
perform the skill
• Instructional Strategies
– Independent Practice (ip)
Any activity where the teacher releases
students to practice a skill on their own
(can be homework, but not necessarily)
• Closure
The closing of the lesson where the teacher
reviews what is learned, answers
questions, fills in blanks, and ensures the
students are finished with the learning
process for the lesson.
• Assessment
An activity where the teacher formally
determines that students learned the
knowledge or skills outlined in the lesson
Lesson assessments should directly
measure the objectives (TEKS).
Examples: Test or exam, project, term
paper, presentation, etc.
• Plan the Lesson (What will we do?)
• Teach the Lesson (Do it)
• Evaluate the Lesson (What did we do?)
• Repeat (Same lesson or new one)
Bloom’s Taxonomy (handout)
Understanding Remembering
Learning Styles
• Auditory
– Identify sounds related to an experience
– Learn by hearing and listening
• Visual
– Have a sharp, clear picture of an experience
– Learn by seeing and looking
• Kinesthetic/tactile
– Learn by touching and doing
– Develop a strong feeling toward an
• Class Grade
• Learning objectives (from TEKS)
• Directions on how to do the activities
• Materials required, copies of handouts and items
referenced in lesson
• Questions from Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Adaptations for each of the 4 areas
• Areas of development/learning styles
• Overview -summary, considerations, challenges
• References
• Work in Groups of up to 5 students.
• Construct a set of unit plans according to the
Curriculum Project (each student will provide
lesson for one of the content areas listed in
instruction b)
• The remainder of class tonight is work time
• Have rough ideas ready to share tomorrow
during your group’s appointment time
• Presentation of Unit is Sunday, Oct 16
• Written lesson plans are due Oct 16