1. What material items do you cherish the greatest as a teenager? 2. How do you attain these items for use? 3. Could you live without these items for a long period of time (are they needs or wants)? North and Central African Societies Chapter 15 Section 1 Mr. Amos Influenced by Geography Topography influences how a community is often organized in Africa; Climate and Land Forms Some communities are bound by religion, family ties, or close family units Oldest form of social organization in the world Rely on hunting and gathering practices for survival Move from place to place in search of resources Homes are temporary Collect few possessions Women are gatherers (yams, roots, berries) Men are Hunters (antelope w/ poisoned tipped arrows) Honey- prized delicacy 1. 2. Turn to page 367 of your textbook and read the excerpt entitled HuntersGatherers. Answer the following questions in your notes: What percent of the African population are hunters and gatherers today? What has happened as a result of globalization to this lifestyle? Respected older male serves as primary leader He does not give orders, every family has a say in community affairs Guidelines for share of food and resources Families organized in lineages - Belief that all descendants are from a common ancestor (includes past generations and future ones) Stateless Society- cultural groups in which authority is shared by lineages of equal power instead of having a central Gov. Most developed south of the Sahara Patrilineal Societytrace ancestors though the father Matrilineal- Children trace ancestors through mothers Read in your textbook concerning Daily Life on page 369 and answer the following in your notes: 1. 2. How do you and your kinship negotiate family issues? Do you think that this way of solving problems would work in your family? After Muhammad’s death in 632 Islam spread across the NW part of Africa Islam in the Maghrib- North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast (Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria) Leaders ruled by Islamic Law (Sharia) Following the law is a religious obligation No separation of personal life and law; Islamic law regulates all areas of human life Because of the Sharia (the way) brought order to North Africa and formed a common identity. Influence - cohesion of ethnicity - politically - Socially One group influenced by Islam were the BERBERS- Nomadic people of N. Africa Dynasty of 11th Century Pilgrim brought Abd Allah Ibn Yasin back to N. Africa Conquest to spread Islam 1050’s - Overran Ghana 1076 - Parts of southern Spain (Moors) Abd al-Mumin- Leader Ousted the Almoravid and fought to remain true to Islamic beliefs Lasted 100 yrs but united all of the Maghrib under one rule Choose a society to form your group into involving one of the three we have discussed in class and answer the following: • Pick a leader. • How would you gain resources to support your community? • How would you settle disputes? Create some form of law to reside over the community. • What problems might occur? How would you handle them as a group? • Where would you live? What kind of shelter might you have? • What would be some key items for your group to survive in Africa (Climate, Geography)?