Chapter 5, Society, Social Structure and Interaction Social Structure: The Macrolevel Perspective Components of Social Structure Societies, Technology and Sociocultural Change Stability and Change in Societies Social Interaction: The Microlevel Perspective Future Changes in Society, Social Structure and Interaction Social Structure Patterns of social relationships in a society make up its social structure. Social structure shapes the overall patterns in which social interaction occurs. Provides an ordered framework for society and for interactions with others. Components of Social Structure Status Roles Groups Social Institutions Status Distinguished by how they are acquired: – – Ascribed - status conferred at birth Achieved - status assumed by choice, merit or effort. Roles The dynamic aspect of a status. Most people have a number of statuses (employee, parent) resulting in role conflict. Leaving a Role Stages: 1. Doubt - frustrated by existing role. 2. Search for alternatives - separation, leave of absence. 3. The turning point - take an action. 4. Create a new identity. Groups Primary Family, close friends, school or work-related peer groups Secondary Schools, churches, corporations Five Basic Social Institutions Family Religion Education Economy Government or politics Perspectives on Social Institutions Functionalist theory - social institutions perform essential tasks. Conflict theory - social institutions are organized to meet basic social needs but do not work for the good of everyone in society. Functionalists: Five Tasks of Social Institutions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Replacing members. Teaching new members. Producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services. Preserving order. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose. Types of Societies 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hunting and gathering Horticultural and pastoral Agrarian Industrial Postindustrial Durkheim's Typology of Social Solidarity Social solidarity is based on social structure which is based on a society's division of labor. Mechanical Solidarity - people are united by traditions and shared values. Organic Solidarity - people are united by mutual dependence on one another. Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Concerned with what happens to social solidarity when a “loss of community” occurs. Gemeinschaft - social relationships are based on bonds of friendship and kinship. Gesellschaft - social bonds are based on impersonal relationships with little consensus on values. Goffman’s Dramaturgical Analysis Daily interactions are similar to dramatic productions. Members of our “audience” judge our performance and are aware that we may reveal our true character. Most of us attempt to control the impressions we give to others. Nonverbal Communication Facial expressions Head movements Eye contact Body positions Touching Personal space Functions of Nonverbal Communication Supplements verbal communication. Regulates social interaction - body posture and eye contact signals whether we wish to talk with someone. Establishes the relationship among people in terms of their power over one another. Personal Space -Distance Zones 1. 2. 3. 4. Intimate (contact to 18 inches) - reserved for spouse, loves, and close friends. Personal (18 inches to 4 feet) -reserved for friends and acquaintances. Social (4 to 12 feet) - impersonal and formal relationships. Public (beyond 12 feet) - makes interpersonal communication impossible.