Chapter 4 Social Structure And Interaction In Everyday Life

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Chapter 5, Society, Social Structure
and Interaction
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Social Structure: The Macrolevel Perspective
Components of Social Structure
Societies, Technology and Sociocultural
Change
Stability and Change in Societies
Social Interaction: The Microlevel Perspective
Future Changes in Society, Social Structure
and Interaction
Social Structure
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Patterns of social relationships in a society
make up its social structure.
Social structure shapes the overall patterns in
which social interaction occurs.
Provides an ordered framework for society and
for interactions with others.
Components of Social Structure
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Status
Roles
Groups
Social Institutions
Status
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Distinguished by how they are acquired:
–
–
Ascribed - status conferred at birth
Achieved - status assumed by choice, merit or
effort.
Roles
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The dynamic aspect of a status.
Most people have a number of statuses
(employee, parent) resulting in role conflict.
Leaving a Role
Stages:
1. Doubt - frustrated by existing role.
2. Search for alternatives - separation, leave of
absence.
3. The turning point - take an action.
4. Create a new identity.
Groups
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Primary
Family, close friends, school or work-related
peer groups
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Secondary
Schools, churches, corporations
Five Basic Social Institutions
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Family
Religion
Education
Economy
Government or politics
Perspectives on Social Institutions
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Functionalist theory - social institutions
perform essential tasks.
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Conflict theory - social institutions are
organized to meet basic social needs but do
not work for the good of everyone in society.
Functionalists: Five Tasks of
Social Institutions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Replacing members.
Teaching new members.
Producing, distributing, and consuming goods
and services.
Preserving order.
Providing and maintaining a sense of
purpose.
Types of Societies
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Hunting and gathering
Horticultural and pastoral
Agrarian
Industrial
Postindustrial
Durkheim's Typology of Social
Solidarity
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Social solidarity is based on social structure
which is based on a society's division of labor.
Mechanical Solidarity - people are united by
traditions and shared values.
Organic Solidarity - people are united by
mutual dependence on one another.
Tönnies: Gemeinschaft and
Gesellschaft
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Concerned with what happens to social
solidarity when a “loss of community” occurs.
Gemeinschaft - social relationships are based
on bonds of friendship and kinship.
Gesellschaft - social bonds are based on
impersonal relationships with little consensus
on values.
Goffman’s Dramaturgical Analysis
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Daily interactions are similar to dramatic
productions.
Members of our “audience” judge our
performance and are aware that we may reveal
our true character.
Most of us attempt to control the impressions
we give to others.
Nonverbal Communication
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Facial expressions
Head movements
Eye contact
Body positions
Touching
Personal space
Functions of Nonverbal
Communication
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Supplements verbal communication.
Regulates social interaction - body posture and
eye contact signals whether we wish to talk
with someone.
Establishes the relationship among people in
terms of their power over one another.
Personal Space -Distance Zones
1.
2.
3.
4.
Intimate (contact to 18 inches) - reserved for
spouse, loves, and close friends.
Personal (18 inches to 4 feet) -reserved for
friends and acquaintances.
Social (4 to 12 feet) - impersonal and formal
relationships.
Public (beyond 12 feet) - makes
interpersonal communication impossible.
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