Chapter 4, Section 3 A group is a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who have some common identity. Societies are the largest examples of a group. Societies are classified by subsistence strategies, or how a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members. Three main types: preindustrial, industrial, postindustrial. Food production is the main economic activity. Four subdivisions: hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural. Divided on the basis of how they produce food and their level of technology. Main form of food production= collection of wild plants and hunting of animals. Characteristics: Move around constantly in search of food; No permanent villages; Smaller size 60-100 people; Equality; Family is the main social unit. Main form of food production= domesticated herd animals. Characteristics: Move around to new pastures for animals; Can support larger populations; Food surpluses division of labor Specialization of tasks by individuals Main form of food production= fruits and vegetables grown in a garden. Characteristics: Size of society depends on land available for farming; Food surpluses division of labor; Inequalities in wealth and power Main form of food production= domesticated animals used to plow fields to grow crops. Characteristics: Use of irrigation and terracing techniques; Can support very large populations; Development of cities and more-advanced technology. Emphasis shifts from food production to the production of manufactured goods. Food production is carried out w/help of machines-- can produce faster. Can yield greater population sizes. Industrialization can lead to urbanization= concentration of population in cities. Greater productivity, but less skill for workers. Competition for social position. Economy is centered around the providing of information and services. In the United States, roughly 73% of the pop’n is involved in these fields. Characteristics: Standard of living and quality of life improve; Emphasis on science and education; Social equality and democracy. Emile Durkheim used the concepts of mechanical and organic solidarity to describe social relationships within a society. Mechanical solidarity= people share values and perform same tasks; united. Organic solidarity= impersonal social relationships; relationships based on need rather than value.