Types of Societies

Chapter 4, Section 3
group is a set of people who interact on
the basis of shared expectations and who
have some common identity.
 Societies
are the largest examples of a group.
 Societies
are classified by subsistence
strategies, or how a society uses
technology to provide for the needs of its
 Three
main types: preindustrial, industrial,
 Food
production is the main economic
 Four
subdivisions: hunting and gathering,
pastoral, horticultural, agricultural.
Divided on the basis of how they produce food
and their level of technology.
 Main
form of food production= collection of
wild plants and hunting of animals.
 Characteristics:
Move around constantly in search of food;
No permanent villages;
Smaller size 60-100 people;
Family is the main social unit.
 Main
form of food production= domesticated
herd animals.
 Characteristics:
Move around to new pastures for animals;
Can support larger populations;
Food surpluses division of labor
Specialization of tasks by individuals
 Main
form of food production= fruits and
vegetables grown in a garden.
 Characteristics:
Size of society depends on land available for
Food surpluses division of labor;
Inequalities in wealth and power
 Main
form of food production= domesticated
animals used to plow fields to grow crops.
 Characteristics:
Use of irrigation and terracing techniques;
Can support very large populations;
Development of cities and more-advanced
 Emphasis
shifts from food production to the
production of manufactured goods.
Food production is carried out w/help of
machines-- can produce faster.
 Can
yield greater population sizes.
 Industrialization can lead to urbanization=
concentration of population in cities.
 Greater productivity, but less skill for
 Competition for social position.
 Economy
is centered around the providing of
information and services.
 In
the United States, roughly 73% of the
pop’n is involved in these fields.
 Characteristics:
Standard of living and quality of life improve;
Emphasis on science and education;
Social equality and democracy.
 Emile
Durkheim used the concepts of
mechanical and organic solidarity to
describe social relationships within a
 Mechanical
solidarity= people share values
and perform same tasks; united.
 Organic
solidarity= impersonal social
relationships; relationships based on need
rather than value.
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