Grains, Legumes, Nuts, & Seeds

Chapter 30
 Grains are the seeds of plants in
the grass family.
 Grains produce many small,
separate dry fruits called kernels.
 North American Grains
Triticale (trih-tih-KAY-lee)
 They are versatile
 They can be included in any meal
 They are flavorful
 They are nutritious
 Germ – the tiny embryo in
a seed that will grow into a
new plant
 Endosperm – the food
supply for a seed’s embryo.
Takes up most of the inner
part of the grain
 Bran – the edible, outer
protective layers of a seed
 Germ – protein,
unsaturated fats, B
vitamins, vitamin E, iron,
zinc, minerals, and
 Endosperm – protein and
 Bran – dietary fiber, B
vitamins, and minerals
 Served plain
 Used in side dishes
 Used to thicken soups and stews
 Cooked and eaten hot as cereal
 Cooked into desserts by adding sweeteners or fruits
 Whole Grain – the entire edible grain kernel is used.
 Enrichment – a process in which some of the nutrients
lost as a result of processing are added back to the
product to near original levels.
 Fortification – a process of adding 10% or more of the
daily value for a specific nutrient to a product by the
Processing removes the bran, the
germ, and vitamins & minerals
from grains. Although some
nutrients are restored through
enriching and fortifying, many
are lost.
 Short Grain – grains are
almost round
 When cooked, rice is
moist and the grains
stick together.
 Used in dishes such as
sushi or when you plan
to eat with chop sticks.
 Medium Grain – the
grains are plump, tender
and moist.
 When cooked the grains
stick together but not as
much as short grain.
 Used in dishes such as
 Long Grain – when
cooked, the grains are
fluffy and stay separate.
 Most common type in
North America.
 Used in pilafs, and side
 Brown Rice – the whole-grain form of rice. Only
inedible hull is removed.
 White rice – has the bran and germ removed.
 Converted Rice – has been parboiled (briefly boiled) to
save nutrients before the hull is removed.
 Instant Rice – has been precooked and dehydrated.
 1 Billion dollars is spent on these products annually
 Choose products high in complex carbohydrates and
 Usually made from wheat, corn, or oats.
 When eating breakfast cereals with milk, keep in mind
that vitamins and minerals are added in the form of
sprays and will dissolve into the milk and be lost
unless the milk is drunk after the cereal is gone.
 Wheat Germ – pleasant nutty flavor.
 Excellent source of protein, vitamins, minerals
 Good source of Fiber (4 g per oz)
 Can be added to yogurt, cereals, and other foods to
boost nutrition and add crunch
 Oats & Grits are available in instant form
 Often have flavorings and sugar added.
 Ranges from enriched white to whole wheat and mixed
whole grains
 They come in assorted sizes, shapes, and flavors
 Leavened – made with a leavening ingredient
 Ex. Yeast
 Unleavened – made without leavening agents
 Pita, tortilla, flat bread
 “Whole Wheat” mean the whole grain is used
 Just “wheat” usually means some part of the grain has
been removed or unbleached white flour has been used
 Some dark breads are made with white flour and
caramel color or molasses
 Pasta is the Italian word for “paste”
 It is made from flour and water (like paste)
 It is rolled then shaped
 Ex. Spaghetti, corkscrews, bow ties, and macaroni
 Available in whole wheat & enriched varieties
 Whole wheat has 3 times the fiber
 Pastas can be flavored & colored
 Carrots, spinach, tomatoes, beets, & others
 Noodles are pasta made with eggs
 Can be made without the yolk
 Lowers fat and cholesterol
 Dried pasta are found with shelf stable products and
Fresh is found in the refrigerated section
 Store Whole grains & whole-grain products in the
 Whole-grain products contain oil, and can spoil at room
temperature if not used quickly
 Refrigerate fresh pasta
 Store other uncooked grain and grain products (rice
and dried pasta) in a cool dry place in tightly covered
 Store breads at room temperature for short term or
freeze for long term (refrigeration may cause bread to
go stale faster)
 In humid climates or during humid weather store bread
in the refrigerator to prevent it from becoming moldy.
 Store cooked grains in the refrigerator for a short time
or in the freezer for longer
 Grains need liquid to be prepared because they are
 Usually plain or salted water
 Do not rinse grains prior to cooking unless otherwise
stated – results in the loss of Vitamin B
 Grains and Pasta tend to take the same amount of time
in the microwave as they do on top of the stove
 Cooked uncovered in a large pot of water
 Pasta must be boiled
 The boiling circulates the pasta for even cooking
 Pasta is generally cooked to a doneness known as Al
Dente – firm to the bite
 If pasta will be cooked again (lasagna) cook for a shorter
amount of time
 Fresh Pasta cooks in a fraction of the time
 Drain pasta in a colander or strainer
 NEVER rinse pasta -- It removes nutrients
 Boil water in a big pot
 Add pasta slowly so the water continues to boil
 Stir pasta occasionally as it cooks to prevent sticking
 Cook until it is al dente
 Drain it in a colander
 To keep cooked pasta hot set the colander or strainer
in which the pasta was drained over a pan of hot water
and cover.
 For freezer storage: stir in 1 teaspoon of cooking oil and
freeze in serving-size portions.
 Pasta freezes best in sauce
 Bring water or another liquid to a boil
 Add the rice, cover, and bring to a boil again
 Reduce heat and simmer, stirring as little as possible
 Cook until rice is moist and tender
 There should be little to no liquid left in the pot.
 Rice is usually cooked in only the amount of liquid
they can absorb
 Directions tell you to stir rice occasionally
 Do not stir long grain rice unless necessary
 It scrapes the starch off and cause the rice to stick together
 Rice, when done, should be moist, tender but firm
 There should be no liquid left in the pot
 Barley, grits, kasha, and other grains are cooked in
much the same way as rice
 Bulgur is cooked by pouring boiling water over it and
letting it steep for 30 minutes
 Some cereals can be prepared with either water or milk
 Instant cereals usually only require boiling water
 Some ready-to-eat cereals can be microwaved and
served hot
 Grape nuts
Shredded Wheat
 For natural sweetness add fresh or dried fruits
 Strawberries, raisins, dried apricots or sliced bananas
 Legumes are plants whose seeds grow in pods that split
along both sides when ripe
 They are excellent sources of complex carbohydrates,
protein, B vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium and
some trace minerals
 Nearly all are low in fat
 Their use has been linked to a reduced risk of heart
disease, some cancers, and other lifestyle diseases
 Legumes are placed in the protein category of the Food
Guide Pyramid
 Health experts urge eating dry beans, peas, or lentils
instead of meat at least twice a week
 ½ cup of cooked dry beans in place of 1 oz of meat
 Legumes can also serve as a vegetable serving
 Legumes make up 2/3 of the proteins eaten by people
all around the world
 Legumes and Grains are incomplete proteins
 proteins that do not contain all of the essential amino
acids need in the diet
 Legumes and Grains each have the amino acids that the
other one is lacking so eating them together you get a
complete protein
 Ex. Red beans and rice
 Peanut butter sandwich
 Soybeans are the only plant based complete protein
 Legumes continue to dry out when stored
 Buy only what you will use in a 6 month period
 The drier they are the longer they take to cook
 Look for legumes that are bright in color, no visible
damage, and are uniform in size
 Store legumes in a cool, dry place in a tightly covered
 Cooked legumes can be stored in the refrigerator if you
plan to use them within 3 days
 For longer storage freeze, add enough liquid to cover so
the beans do not dry out
Black Beans (turtle beans)
Black skin, cream colored
interior, sweet flavor
Black-eyed peas
Actually a bean, not pea. Small,
oval, with black “eye” on one side
Dry Peas
Available whole or split, green
or yellow
Garbanzo beans (chickpeas)
Round, roughly shaped, nutlike flavor, firm
texture. Hold their shape when cooked
Thin, tiny, disc-shaped. Come in colors
ranging from grayish brown to green to
reddish orange
Lima Beans
White, flat beans in assorted sizes.
Baby limas are smallest and mild in
flavor. Butter beans are largest with a
rich, buttery flavor
Pink and Red Beans
Vary in size, flavor, and intensity of
color. Kidney beans are the largest,
with a hearty flavor
Pinto Beans
Pink and White, speckled. Similar in
flavor and texture to pink and red
Distinct flavor. High in protein and fat,
difficult to digest also known as
White Beans
Vary in size and flavor, but all have a
firm texture. Great Northern are
largest. Navy beans are medium in size
 Like grains they are versatile and easy to cook
 They tend to pick up flavors from foods they are
cooked with
 Ex. Onion
 Once cooked legumes can be served whole, mashed or
 They can be served as a side dish or a main ingredient
in casseroles, soups, stews, chili, burritos, and salads
 Before cooking sort through the legumes
 Discard pebbles, dirt, and stems
 Discard any legumes that are damaged, smaller than the
others, or have a greenish tint
 Rinse the legumes carefully by placing them in cold
water, drain, and rinse again
 Dry beans take one to two hours to cook
 Soaking before cooking can cut down on cooking time
by 15 – 30 minutes
 Dry peas and lentils do not need to be soaked
To a large pot, add about 10 cups of hot water for
every pound of beans
Simmer for 2 to 3 minutes
Turn off heat
Cover and let soak for at least an hour
 Simmer beans in a large pot
 Seasoning may be added to increase flavor
 Check beans at the minimum cook time
 Beans that are used in salad or cooked more should be
cooked less for a firmer texture
 If you plan to mash the beans cook a little longer
 When done there should be little cooking liquid left
 A convenient way to cook beans is in a slow cooker
 Do NOT presoak beans
 A pressure cooker can also be used
 This is faster than stove top
 You can microwave legumes but it takes the same
amount of time as the stove top
 Included in the meat group on the Food Guide
 High in protein and B vitamins
 They are also high in fat
 When eaten in moderation they can be a heart healthy
Brazil Nuts
Actually a Legume
Actually a seed
 Both seeds and nuts are sold
 With or without shells
 Raw or roasted
 In oil or dry
 They both can be ground into a thick spreadable paste
 Peanut butter is the most common
 Avoid nuts in broken shells
 Store nuts and seed in refrigerator if not using them
quickly because they contain oil that can go rancid
 Chopped or ground nuts and seeds add flavor and
texture to baked goods, salads, cereal, and yogurt
 They can be used in meatless baked dishes to add
 Spreads can be used in sandwiches or recipes
 When using in low-fat cooking toast seeds and nuts to
enhance flavor