Warm Up: Tuesday, August st 21 Respond in FULL Sentences: Who was your favorite super-hero growing up? Why was he/she your favorite super-hero? What qualities does a super-hero have that distinguishes them from “regular” people? The Culture of Classical Greece Daily Life Classical Athens Largest population at the time Slavery was common Most people owned at least one State owned slaves worked on public projects Most residents of Athens were not citizens Economy and Society Economy based on farming and trade Grapes, veggies, fruit, sheep, milk, dairy products Exported olive oil and wine Imported 50-80 percent of grain Family Husband, wife, children, slaves, other dependants Producing children was main goal Women Women were excluded from public life Had to have male companion to leave house Work in house or supervise slaves who worked in home Could not own property or other personal items Only worked outside home if poor Male guardians No formal education Greek Religion Greek religion was fundamental to Greek society and is remembered today for the Olympic Games and Greek drama, which were part of religious festivals Religion necessary to wellbeing of state Temples major building in Greek cities 12 chief gods lived on Mt. Olympus Gods and Religion • Spirits of most people went to Underworld ruled by god Hades • Rituals with prayers and gifts – I gave to you, you will give to me • Festivals to honor gods/goddesses – Olympic festival 776 B.C. • Oracles revealed future from gods – Priest or priestess – Apollo at Delphi most famous Myths- Why are they created? Greeks Create Myths Greeks develop their own myths – traditional stories about gods Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths Greeks attribute human qualities – love, hate, jealousy – to their gods King of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus, and god of the sky and thunder, in Greek mythology. His symbols are the thunderbolt, bull, eagle and the oak. He was married to the goddess Hera, although he was not very faithful. The Roman name for Zeus is Jupiter. god of the sea, as well as of horses and, as "EarthShaker", of earthquakes. Roman name is Neptune The god of the dead Hades was the ruler of the Greek Underworld (which itself is sometimes confusingly referred to as "Hades" also). In mythology, he was the brother of Zeus and Poseidon Roman Name is Pluto Hestia is the Greek goddess of the hearth fire, hence presiding over domestic life. She swore a vow of eternal chastity. Wife and older sister of Zeus. She also presided as goddess of marriage and childbirth. Writers represented Hera as constantly being jealous of Zeus's various amorous affairs. She punished her rivals and their children, among both goddesses and mortals, with implacable fury. Roman name is Juno son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. Though often incorrectly referred to as the Olympian god of war, he is more accurately the god of savage war, or bloodlust. Roman name is Mars goddess of civilization, specifically wisdom, weaving, crafts and the more disciplined side of war (violence and bloodlust were Ares' domain). Was the patron goddess of Athens Roman name is Minerva archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and is a god of music and poetry Frequently referred to as the god of the sun. Roman name is also Apollo goddess of love, lust, beauty, and sexuality. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus. Hermes is the messenger from the gods to humans Roman name is Mercury Virgin goddess of the hunt and the wild. . She was the twin sister of Apollo Roman name was Diana Pandora ("all gifted") was the first woman Zeus ordered Hephaestus to make her as part of the punishment of mankind for Prometheus' theft of the secret of fire. According to the myth, Pandora opened a container releasing all the miseries of mankind— greed, vanity, slander, envy, pining— leaving only hope inside. The Greeks began the practice of performing plays in outdoor amphitheatres. Theatre began as a festival worshipping Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility, but evolved into the art form we are familiar with today. A group of actors, called the chorus, stood on stage and talked about what was happening in the play. Only men were allowed to be actors. The actors wore large masks, perhaps with amplification devices in them, perhaps so that it was easy to tell the emotion of the actor by looking at their mask. Tragedy and Comedy were the two areas of Greek theatre Apollo at Delphi Classical Greek Arts and Literature Greece produced groundbreaking art and literature that is still considered relevant. Based on religion, no longer practiced Passed down by Romans Human being object of great beauty Architecture and Sculpture Temple most important Originally made of wood, 5th century B.C. marble Open structures Parthenon Built 447-432 B.C. God Athena Calmness, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail. Sculpture: human ideal figure Inside the Parthenon Architecture The Classical Orders The three classical orders are: Doric Ionic Corinthian Designs of Greek Temples Grander temples, like Reconstruction of the Parthenon in Nashville. the Parthenon, had both a front and back porch, as well as a colonnade surrounding the entire structure. Important Greek Structures The Acropolis, the Propylaea, the Temple of Athena Nike, the Parthenon, and the Erectheum The Acropolis The most famous Greek buildings topped the Athenian Acropolis. The Propylea Temple of Athena Nike The Parthenon The Erechtheum The most distinctive element of this building is the Porch of the Maidens. Influence on the World Greek architecture had a lasting impact on the world. The Romans adopted it as an ideal, but modified it to meet their practical needs. In the United States The Supreme Court of the United States Amphitheaters Amphi- means "around" in Greek. Amphi-theatres are "theatres in the round" Amphitheaters in America Theaters The theater was shaped with a half circle or orchestra space in front of the stage. The structure was built into a hillside and the wall behind the stage structure was relatively low. To solve the problem of lighting and sound - the theaters were outdoors. Dodoni Ancient Greek Theater, Northwest Greece Dodoni was a vital center from about 2000 BC and flourished well into the Roman times. Greek Theaters Orchestra: The orchestra (literally, "dancing space") was normally circular. Theatron: The theatron (literally, "viewing-place") is where the spectators sat. Skene: The skene (literally, "tent") was the building directly behind the stage. Parodos: The parodoi (literally, "passageways") are the paths by which the chorus and some actors made their entrances and exits. Arches An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight. The arch was developed in Ancient Greece and later refined in Ancient Rome. Arches were used by for underground structures such as drains and vaults. The Arch of Constantine; background right, the Colosseum. The ancient Romans were the first to use them widely above ground. Arches in America Monuments Roman monuments were constructed using the arch and had the details carved into them. The arch was usually very big and was a prominent feature of the skyline of the town in which it was located. Arch of Constantine 315 A.D. Monuments in America Aqueducts in America Croton Aqueduct, New York City, NY, 1842 •Provide clean water to the growing city. Cabin John Bridge, Washington Aqueduct, Washington, DC, 1852 Bath Houses Aqueducts provided the water to the public baths. Heated and cooled baths. Dirty water was replaced with clean water. Exercise and message rooms were available. What makes a hero activity? Pick someone that you find to be your hero (dead or alive, famous or non-famous) Answer the following questions in a paragraph explaining what makes them a hero How do they strive for “arete” or excellence? How do they preserve their honor and reputation? How do they work hard to earn their reputation? Why you are proud of them? This will be due this Friday!!!