The Culture of Classical Greece Daily Life Classical Athens

Warm Up: Tuesday, August
 Respond in FULL Sentences:
 Who was your favorite super-hero growing
 Why was he/she your favorite super-hero?
 What qualities does a super-hero have
that distinguishes them from “regular”
The Culture of Classical Greece
Daily Life Classical Athens
 Largest population at the
 Slavery was common
 Most people owned at
least one
 State owned slaves worked
on public projects
 Most residents of Athens
were not citizens
Economy and Society
 Economy based on farming and trade
 Grapes, veggies, fruit, sheep, milk, dairy products
 Exported olive oil and wine
 Imported 50-80 percent of grain
 Family
 Husband, wife, children, slaves, other dependants
 Producing children was main goal
 Women were excluded
from public life
Had to have male
companion to leave
Work in house or
supervise slaves who
worked in home
Could not own property
or other personal items
Only worked outside
home if poor
Male guardians
No formal education
Greek Religion
 Greek religion was
fundamental to Greek
society and is remembered
today for the Olympic
Games and Greek drama,
which were part of religious
 Religion necessary to wellbeing of state
 Temples major building in
Greek cities
 12 chief gods lived on Mt.
Gods and Religion
• Spirits of most people went to Underworld
ruled by god Hades
• Rituals with prayers and gifts
– I gave to you, you will give to me
• Festivals to honor gods/goddesses
– Olympic festival 776 B.C.
• Oracles revealed future from gods
– Priest or priestess
– Apollo at Delphi most famous
Myths- Why are they created?
 Greeks Create Myths
 Greeks develop their own myths – traditional stories
about gods
 Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through
 Greeks attribute human qualities – love, hate, jealousy –
to their gods
King of the gods, the ruler of
Mount Olympus, and god of the
sky and thunder, in Greek
mythology. His symbols are the
thunderbolt, bull, eagle and the
He was married to the goddess
Hera, although he was not very
The Roman name for Zeus is Jupiter.
god of the sea, as well as of
horses and, as "EarthShaker", of earthquakes.
Roman name is Neptune
The god of the dead
Hades was the ruler of the Greek
Underworld (which itself is sometimes
confusingly referred to as "Hades" also). In
mythology, he was the brother of Zeus and
Roman Name is Pluto
Hestia is the Greek goddess of the
hearth fire, hence presiding over
domestic life. She swore a vow of
eternal chastity.
Wife and older sister of Zeus.
She also presided as goddess of
marriage and childbirth.
Writers represented Hera as
constantly being jealous of
Zeus's various amorous affairs.
She punished her rivals and
their children, among both
goddesses and mortals, with
implacable fury.
Roman name is Juno
son of Zeus (king of the gods) and
Hera. Though often incorrectly
referred to as the Olympian god of
war, he is more accurately the god of
savage war, or bloodlust.
Roman name is Mars
goddess of civilization, specifically
wisdom, weaving, crafts and the
more disciplined side of war
(violence and bloodlust were Ares'
Was the patron goddess of Athens
Roman name is Minerva
archer-god of medicine
and healing, light, truth,
archery and is a god of
music and poetry
Frequently referred to as
the god of the sun.
Roman name is also Apollo
goddess of
love, lust,
beauty, and
sexuality. Her
equivalent is
the goddess
Hermes is the messenger
from the gods to humans
Roman name is Mercury
Virgin goddess of the
hunt and the wild. .
She was the twin sister of
Roman name was Diana
Pandora ("all gifted") was the first woman
Zeus ordered Hephaestus to
make her as part of the
punishment of mankind for
Prometheus' theft of the
secret of fire. According to
the myth, Pandora opened a
container releasing all the
miseries of mankind— greed,
vanity, slander, envy, pining—
leaving only hope inside.
The Greeks began the practice of performing plays in outdoor
Theatre began as a festival worshipping Dionysus, the god of
wine and fertility, but evolved into the art form we are familiar
with today.
A group of actors, called the chorus, stood on stage and talked
about what was happening in the play.
Only men were allowed to be actors.
The actors wore large masks, perhaps with amplification devices
in them, perhaps so that it was easy to tell the emotion of the
actor by looking at their mask.
Tragedy and Comedy were the two areas of Greek theatre
Apollo at Delphi
Classical Greek Arts and Literature
 Greece produced groundbreaking art and
literature that is still considered relevant.
 Based on religion, no longer practiced
 Passed down by Romans
 Human being object of great beauty
Architecture and Sculpture
 Temple most important
 Originally made of wood, 5th century B.C. marble
 Open structures
 Parthenon
Built 447-432 B.C.
God Athena
Calmness, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail.
 Sculpture: human ideal figure
Inside the Parthenon
The Classical Orders
 The three
orders are:
 Doric
 Ionic
 Corinthian
Designs of Greek
 Grander temples, like
Reconstruction of the
Parthenon in Nashville.
the Parthenon, had
both a front and back
porch, as well as a
colonnade surrounding
the entire structure.
Important Greek Structures
The Acropolis, the Propylaea,
Temple of Athena Nike, the
Parthenon, and the Erectheum
The Acropolis
 The most famous
Greek buildings
topped the
The Propylea
Temple of Athena Nike
The Parthenon
The Erechtheum
 The most distinctive element of this building
is the Porch of the Maidens.
Influence on the
 Greek
architecture had a
lasting impact on
the world.
 The Romans
adopted it as an
ideal, but
modified it to
meet their
practical needs.
In the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States
 Amphi- means "around" in
 Amphi-theatres are "theatres
in the round"
Amphitheaters in America
 The theater was shaped with a
half circle or orchestra space in
front of the stage.
 The structure was built into a
hillside and the wall behind the
stage structure was relatively
 To solve the problem of lighting
and sound - the theaters were
Dodoni Ancient Greek Theater,
Northwest Greece
 Dodoni was a vital center from
about 2000 BC and flourished
well into the Roman times.
Greek Theaters
 Orchestra: The orchestra (literally,
"dancing space") was normally
 Theatron: The theatron (literally,
"viewing-place") is where the
spectators sat.
 Skene: The skene (literally, "tent")
was the building directly behind the
 Parodos: The parodoi (literally,
"passageways") are the paths by
which the chorus and some actors
made their entrances and exits.
 An arch is a curved structure
capable of spanning a space
while supporting significant
 The arch was developed in
Ancient Greece and later
refined in Ancient Rome.
 Arches were used by for
underground structures such
as drains and vaults.
The Arch of Constantine;
background right, the Colosseum.
 The ancient Romans were the
first to use them widely above
Arches in America
 Roman monuments were
constructed using the
arch and had the details
carved into them.
 The arch was usually very
big and was a prominent
feature of the skyline of
the town in which it was
Arch of Constantine
315 A.D.
Monuments in America
Aqueducts in America
Croton Aqueduct,
New York City, NY, 1842
•Provide clean water to the growing city.
Cabin John Bridge,
Washington Aqueduct,
Washington, DC, 1852
Bath Houses
 Aqueducts provided the
water to the public
Heated and cooled
 Dirty water was replaced
with clean water.
 Exercise and message
rooms were available.
What makes a hero activity?
 Pick someone that you find to be your hero (dead or
alive, famous or non-famous)
 Answer the following questions in a paragraph
explaining what makes them a hero
 How do they strive for “arete” or excellence?
 How do they preserve their honor and reputation?
 How do they work hard to earn their reputation?
 Why you are proud of them?
 This will be due this Friday!!!