The Beginnings of Industrialization

The Beginnings of
Chapter 9.1
The Industrial Revolution
• Definition:
• The greatly increased output of machine-made goods
that began in England in the 1700s.
The Industrial Revolution
Begins in Britain
• The Agricultural Revolution paves the way
• Wealthy landowners bought up the land (could produce
• They created Enclosures: the larger fields divided by
fences or hedges which had 2 important results:
Tried new agricultural methods
Large landowners forced smaller ones to become tenant
farmers or move into the cities for work = LARGER
Jethro Tull
• Created a “seed drill” allowing well spaced rows
(more output)
Rotating Crops
• Increased population = increased need for food
• Crop improvements:
• Crop Rotation: planting various different crops each
year to reintroduce nutrients to the soil
• Livestock improvements:
• Only the best sheep were allowed to breed
• (avg weight = went from 18 to 50 lbs!)
Why The Industrial
Revolution Began in England
• Extensive Natural Resources
Water power & coal for power
Iron ore to construct tools, machines & buildings
Rivers for transportation
Harbors to trade goods
• Advanced banking system
• Bank loans encouraged people to buy/invest
• Britain had the all the Factors of Production: the
resources needed to produce goods & services that the
Industrial Revolution required (Land, Labor, Capital)
Inventions Spur
• Textile Industry (Cloth Industry)
The Flying Shuttle – Doubled output p/day
Spinning Jenny – 1 spinner = 8 threads at one time
Water Frame – used water power from local streams
Spinning mule – made stronger, finer & more consistent
• These large machines needed large buildings called
Factories – the first factories were built on or near
water sources.
America’s Cotton in Britain
• England’s cotton came from the United States’
southern plantations
• Eli Whitney – invented the Cotton Gin –
• Separated the cotton fibers from the seeds
• 1790 = 1.5 million pounds of cotton
• 1810 = 85 million pounds of cotton!
Improvements in
• James Watt’s Steam Engine
Water Transportation
• Robert Fulton – built the Clermont – World’s first
steam powered boat
• Ferried people up and down the Hudson River in
• Creation of canals led to faster/more efficient trade
Road Transportation
• Roads improved
• Turnpikes = Toll Roads
Railway Age Begins
• Steam Driven Locomotives:
• First use of trains for transportation of people & goods
• Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain
Cheap way of transporting materials/products
Created jobs
Boosted agriculture & fishing industries
Encouraged country folk into taking city jobs