PROGRESSIVE ERA & THE PRESIDENTS: ROOSEVELT, TAFT, WILSON Match the following president’s to items during their presidency 1. President Theodor (Teddy) Roosevelt A) This person weighted 335 and got stuck in a B) C) 2. 3. President William Taft President Woodrow Wilson D) E) F) bath tub Women received the right to vote under this president This person preserved 150 national forests and 5 national parks (including Yosemite, Yellowstone, and Crater Lake) World War I broke out during his presidency. This person created income taxes (deducted from your paycheck if you have a job) This person was the first president to leave a country while in office Theodore Roosevelt: The Square Deal The “Square Deal” was the name of the domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. Roosevelt saw his job as stewardship- leading the nation in the public interest like a manager or supervisor and believed that a president had any powers not specifically denied to the president in the Constitution. (“I can do it as long as the Constitution doesn’t say I can’t…) Theodore Roosevelt: Regulating Business Signed the Hepburn Act which strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission (created in 1887) allowing it to regulate railroad shipping rates and also regulate pipelines, ferries, bridges, and terminals. TR was known as the “trust buster”. He made distinction between “good” trusts subject only to regulation and “bad” trusts which were to be dissolved. Theodore Roosevelt: Regulating Business The Supreme Court also ruled against companies (Northern Securities Co. v. United States, 1901) which controlled the railroad system in the Northwest and ordered it to be dissolved. Theodore Roosevelt: Labor Conditions Roosevelt also achieved important reforms in working conditions: Anthracite Coal Strike (1907): when coal mine owners in PA refused to negotiate with striking workers, Roosevelt threatened to send in the army. Owners then agreed to arbitration. Roosevelt also signed the Employers Liability Act (1906) to provide accident insurance for workers and also the Supreme Court ruled that workers hours on the job could be limited -- Lochner v. New York (1905), Muller v. Oregon (1908). Both of which were goals of Progressive reformers. Theodore Roosevelt: Conservation Roosevelt is probably the most well-remembered for his efforts to protect the environment and wilderness lands. Forest Reserve Act (1891): Roosevelt used this act to put 150 million acres of public lands under protection of the federal government. When he left office, he had tripled the amount of land set aside for national forests, national parks, and wildlife refuges. National (Newlands) Reclamation Act (1902): set aside $$ to build dams and irrigation systems. Created the U.S. Forest Service (1905): to manage the nation’s water and timber resources. William Howard Taft: Progressive Reforms continue… Justice Department brought twice as many lawsuits against big business as it had under Roosevelt. Mann-Elkins Act (1910): gave the ICC power to regulate communication by telephone and telegraph. 16th Amendment: gave Congress authority to impose income tax. Wanted lower tariffs but Congress raised them – Payne- Aldrich Act (1909). Republican party split during his presidency- a Taft faction and Progressive faction. This ultimately allowed a DemocratWoodrow Wilson to win the presidency in November 1913. Taft and the bathtub– his claim to fame! William Howard Taft The Justice department brought twice as many lawsuits against big business as it had under Roosevelt. Mann Elkins Act (1910): gave the ICC the power to regulate communication by telegraph and telephone . 16th amendment: gave Congress authority to improve income tax William Howard Taft The Justice department brought twice as many lawsuits against big business as it had under Roosevelt. Mann Elkins Act (1910): gave the ICC the power to regulate communication by telegraph and telephone . 16th amendment: gave Congress authority to improve income tax Woodrow Wilson: New Freedom “New Freedom” was the name of Wilson’s Progressive philosophy. He aimed for a return to competition in the marketplace with enforcement of antitrust laws. Underwood Tariff Act (1913): lowered tariffs for first time since Civil War and provided for graduated income tax. Created the Federal Reserve System (1913): divided the nation’s banking system into 12 districts each with a federal reserve bank which gave the government more control over the money supply and control interest rates. Woodrow Wilson: New Freedom Wilson also signed the Clayton Antitrust Act (1914): the act strengthened the government’s power to control business practices that threatened competition. Prohibited companies from price fixing and from buying stocks from competing firms. Ratification of the 19th Amendment: gave women the right to vote (suffrage).