Chapter 18 Notes

Chapter 18
Popular Sovereignty
•Each party enjoyed support in North and South-many wanted to
ignore slavery yet could not
•Polk a single termer so Democrats looked to a new man
•Turned to Lewis Cass-Democrats wanted to be quiet on the issue
yet Cass supported popular sovereignty
•Much of the public like this-Self Determination
•Politicians thought it was a compromise-threw the issue to the
people and therefore they did not have to take the issue
•It might spread slavery?
Triumph of Taylor
• Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor
• Avoided key issues & tried to stick to appeal
• Free Soil was organized-against slavery in the territories & for
the Wilmot Proviso, for federal aid for internal improvements,
free government homesteads for settlers
• Attracted a wide group: Northerners who opposed tariff
reduction, favoritism for all of Texas & not Oregon, those who
feared competing w/ blacks, those who condemned slaverynominated Van Buren
• Free Soil Argument?
• Taylor wins!-(Van Buren help?)
Californy Gold
• Taylor could not sit on lid of slavery w/ discovery of gold in
California in 1848
• Thousands poured in w/ few successes-most not particularly
good citizens-crime explosion
• Many law abiding and wanted an adequate state government
• California drafted a constitution in 1849 that excluded slavery &
applied for statehood-bypass territorial stage-bypassing
Southern Congressman trying to block free soil-Violent
Sectional Balance & Underground RR
• South of 1850 was well-off-Taylor in the White House,Majority
of cabinet and Supreme Court Southerners, equality in the
Senate, Cotton fields expanding and profits high. Many felt
slavery was safe below the Mason-Dixon line-Senate Power!
• South worried delicate balance would be lost w/California
• Problems already existed w/ New Mexico and Utah-nonslavefateful precedent for Mexican territory lost w/ southern blood
• Texas also argued it additional territory
• South also angered by agitation for abolition in DC
• Angered by runaway slaves-Underground RR (Harriet Tubman)
• Southerners demanded new and tougher fugitive slave lawsNortherners failed to follow laws
• 1850-South was losing about 1,000 slaves per year-most
gained freedom through purchase or voluntary emancipation
Need for Compromise
• Allow California in as a free state? Clay, Calhoun, Webster in
• Clay, 73, played large role, proposed a series of compromises
ably helped by Stephen A. Douglas-North needed to yield
• Calhoun, 68, championed the Southern cause-leave slavery
alone, return runaways, give South its political rights & restore
balance-2 presidents?
• Webster, 68, asked for a new fugitive slave law w/ teeth & no
slavery in the territories-his speech strengthened the union for a
Compromise of 1850-Pg. 397
• New guard had their say-WH Seward came our vs. concessionstrong antislavery position
• Seward argued Christian legislators must obey God’s law
• Taylor threatened to veto any compromise & threatened to take
our Texas himself
• Taylor died-Millard Fillmore took over reigns & signed a series
of compromises
• Union strengthened & favored compromise-South did not
• Effort at gathering extremists of the the South failed-Talk of
secession died out temporarily
Who Benefited?
• North had the best deal-control of the Senate-N. Mexico &
Utah-popular sovereignty
• Texas paid $10 million for land that would be free
• No slave trade in DC
• Fugitive slave law of 1850-slaves could not testify & no trial by
jury-help in escape would bring heavy fines and punishment
• States passed personal liberty laws to fight fugitive law
• North was forging ahead of South each passing decade
• Delay also added to the moral strength of the NorthCompromise won the war for the North
Defeat for Whigs
• 1852-Dems nominate Franklin Pierce/Whigs Winfield Scott
• Issue of slavery not brought to the forefront-Mudslinging
• Whigs began the split along N/S-Pierce wins
• Whig Party dies-emergence of sectional political alignments
• Contribution?
• Expansionist-Canals & Cuba
• South wanted land-no slavery in Mexican cession
• Nicaragua-Wllm Walker-1850s-crushed by Coalition
• Nicaragua interested Britain-1850 Clayton-Bulwar Treaty-not
America nor Britain would secure exclusive control over any
isthmian waterway
• US wanted trade with China and Japan
• By 1853 Japan was ready to emerge from seclusion
• Fleet of US ships arrived in Japan in 1854-led to treaty
• Manifest Destiny of 1850s-offered $100 million & Spain refused
• 1850-51-two efforts from Southern adventurers failed-Spain
seized American vessel, “Black Warrior”
• Ostend Manifesto-$120 million for Cuba, if refused, US would
take the island
• Word of Manifesto leaked-Free Soilers cried foul & Pierce had
to back off
• South-Cuba, North-Canada?
RR and Gadsden Purchase
• California & Oregon were tough travel
• RR was real solution-who would have terminus?
• Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis arranged for James Gadsden
to be minister to Mexico
• Santa Anna in power & need of $-offered $10 million for land
• Purchase allowed South to lay claim to RR
• North-if organized territory the test-Nebraska should be
organized-Many land hungry were poised on Nebraska border
• Greeted w/ apathy by South
• Douglas-goal-Chicago terminus
• Plan: Nebraska cut into Kansas & Nebraska-popular
• Idea: Kansas-slave/Nebraska-free
• Violation of the Missouri Compromise
• South backed and so did Pierce(1854)
• Free Soilers in Congress passed bill through
• Douglas’ motives?
• Failed to feel the moral issue in North-breach of faith w/ repeal
of Missouri Compromise-”No more clean bed without snakes”
• Douglas still popular in Illinois
Congress Legislate Civil War
• Kansas-Nebraska Act greased the slippery slope to Civil War
• Antislavery Northerners were angered-made compromise in the
future more difficult
• Fugitive Slave Law dead in the North-1820-1850 Compromises
• New Republican Party emerged
• Quickly became a second party and a sectional one
• Democrats hurt/No Republicans in the South
• Sectionalism ruled the day