Reconstruction Facts USH-3.3/3.4 Directions: Create an organizational chart with four different categories of your choice. Then place each of the following facts into one of those categories. Reconstruction was a time when the North and the South worked to become one nation again. Grandfather clause allowed poor, illiterate whites to avoid the poll taxes and literacy test and still vote. The Ku Klux Klan was a terrorist group that killed and tortured people they did not agree with, particularly African Americans. Some white southerners tried to prevent African Americans from voting by using poll taxes, literacy tests, and having land ownership requirements. Scalawags were southerners that supported Reconstruction. Congress refused to allow former Confederates to enter Congress. Because many cities were destroyed by the Civil War, many factories and businesses had to be rebuilt before people could begin earning money again. The 14th Amendment guaranteed everyone “equal protection of the laws.” After the war Confederate money was worthless and many Southerners were facing poverty. During Reconstruction there was a lot of corruption in politics. Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867 which created military zones in the South. President Johnson was impeached but not removed. Many plantation owners’ homes were destroyed in the war. A sharecropping relationship between African Americans and whites in the South began. Carpetbaggers were Northern immigrants who moved to the South after the Civil War. Many African Americans were elected to both state legislatures and Congress. The Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” was okay in the Plessy v. Ferguson case, which began the segregation of public buildings. The South finally agreed to elect Hayes as president because federal troops were removed from the south and money was given to the South to help with rebuilding. The Southern states had to begin following the laws of the federal government. During Reconstruction many schools and railroads were built. The end of the war brought emancipation for the slaves. The Freedmen’s Bureau was created by the federal government to help those affect by the Civil War. When federal troops withdrew from the South, this marked the end of Reconstruction and was bad for African Americans. Southerners wrote Black Codes, which were laws that practically kept African Americans in slavery. The 15th amendment gave all men over the age of 21 the right to vote. Small farmers often returned from the war to find their family had abandoned their homes. Former slaves, now called freedmen left the plantations to search for relatives but it was often difficult for them to be reunited with their families. Many white southerners refused to use the Freedmen’s Bureau.