Atoms and Electrons Review Sheet

Atom and Electrons Review
Democritus – suggests the existence of atoms 400BC
Dalton – first Atomic Theory 1803 (Which of his postulates are considered true/false?)
Goldstein – Protons (anode rays)
Thomson – Electrons and charge/mass ratio of the electron (cathode ray tube)
Millikan – Oil Drop and the charge and mass of an electron
Rutherford – Gold Foil and the nucleus
Bohr – Orbits and Energy Levels
Planck/Einstein – Particulate nature of light – Quantum Mechanics – photons and quanta
DeBroglie – Wavelength of moving particles
Heisenberg – Uncertainty Principle – to “see” electrons you have to hit them with light
Schrodinger – Orbitals not Orbits – quantum numbers etc.
Chadwick – Neutrons – solves the mystery of the missing mass
The Atom
Definition of the Atom
Nuclear Symbols
Protons / Neutrons -- Both made up of quarks. Both are hadrons
Atomic Number / Mass Number / Isotopes
Electrons / Ions – How are they formed (cations and anions)
The AMU / Atomic Mass / Average Atomic Mass
What does “fundamental” mean? Which particles inside the atom are fundamental?
Light and Light Math
Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation
Wavelength, Frequency, Energy – how are all of these related to each other?
3 key equations: _________________
Quantum Mechanics – Energy comes in little quantifiable packets called quanta or
photons (in the case of light)
Alpha, Beta, Gamma Radiation
Emission Spectrum vs. Absorbance Spectrum
Electrons in the Atom
Can you label a Periodic Table for use with electron configurations?
Energy Levels / Shells
(energy level = n)
Sublevels / Subshells
(# sublevels in an energy level = n)
Orbitals – shapes and number of each type in an energy level (# orbitals in an energy level = n2)
Electrons – (# electrons which can fit in an energy level = 2n2)
Degenerate Orbitals
How Hydrogen’s energy levels and sublevels different than all other atoms?
Quantum Numbers – what are they?
Orbital Diagrams
Aufbau Principle / Pauli Exclusion Principle / Hund’s Rule
Exceptions to Aufbau Principle (Where do we find these elements?)
Electron Configurations
Ground State vs. Excited State Configurations (How can electrons be excited?)
Paired and unpaired electrons
Shorthand Configurations / Valence Configurations
Configurations of ions
Isoelectronic ions/atoms.
Dot Diagrams and Valence Electrons
Magnetic vs Nonmagnetic Metals