THE GUNPOWDER DYNASTIES The Ottoman Empire, The Safavid Empire, and the Mughal Empire Ottomans Known for acting kindly towards the people they conquered Improved lives of peasants Non-Muslims had to pay tax Timur the Lame (Persian) – halted growth of Ottoman Empire Captured the sultan (“overlord”; ruler of Ottomans) Ottomans War broke out between the 4 sons of the Ottoman sultan Mehmet I won His son Murad II restored Ottoman military Ottomans kept expanding in 1566 Mehmet II – Murad’s son Took power at 21 Wanted Constantinople (most important city in Byzantine Empire) Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Mehmet II 2 years – built a force of 125 ships and 100,000 foot soldiers April 1453 launched attack on the Byzantines Byzantines didn’t receive much help After 5 weeks – Mehmet’s forces able to enter city of Constantinople Hagia Sophia – most important church in Eastern Christian world; took it over and made it a mosque Constantinople/Istanbul Opened city to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds City was now called Istanbul Jews, Muslims, Christians, Turks, non-Turks all lived there Istanbul Selim the Grim Took power in 1512 – had to murder his fathers and brothers to do so 1514 – Defeated the Safavids at Persia Captured Mecca and Medina Took Cairo – intellectual center of Muslim world Egypt became a part of Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Lawgiver/Magnificent Selim’s son – Suleiman I 1520 – ruled for 46 years West called him Suleiman the Magnificent Military leader Had immense navy Suleiman Most powerful monarch on earth Palace bureaucracy staffed 20,000 slaves Suleiman’s Reign Conquered along North African coastline Controlled trade routes to interior of Africa Waged war on central Europeans, North Africans, and central Asians 1525 – tried for Hungary and Austria Siege of Vienna failed Suleiman then devoted himself to domestic affairs Janissaries Members of elite force of soldiers 30,000 Could be chosen due to devshirme policy Belonged to the sultan Protectors of the sultan Devshirme Sultan’s army took boys from their families Many from Christian territories Educated them and converted them to Islam Trained them as soldiers Some families bribed officials to take children into janissary corps Had chance to rise in government Religious Freedom Freedom of worship to other religious communities Treated these communities as millets (nations). Could follow own religious laws and practices Head of millets reported to sultan and staff Suleiman’s Domestic Success Workable social structure Simplified taxation system Reduced government bureaucracy Found time to study poetry, history, geography Employed architect to build Mosque of Suleiman Had 4 schools, college, library, bath, and hospital It sounds like it was awesome Mosque of Suleiman (Istanbul, Turkey) Interior Decline Suleiman killed ablest son (this is a theme) Others into eile Selim II – 3rd son 1571 – Spain & Italy destroyed Turkish fleet Customary to have sultan’s brothers strangled with string of a bow Would keep sons prisoner Dissolved after WWI Safavids Iranian origin – descended from prophet Muhammad 15th century – Shi’a branch of Islam Built powerful army 1499 – Isma’il (14 years old) Shi’a Islam state religion Had to convert to Shi’ism Destroyed Sunni population in Baghdad Sunni vs. Shi’a What’s the difference? Sunni vs. Shi’a Shi’a Successor of Muhammad – Ali – husband of prophet’s daughter Fatimah (designated by the Prophet) Iran, Iraq, Yemen Sunni Successor of Muhammad – Abu Bakr, father of Muhammad’s favorite wife, ‘A’ishah (elected by the people of Medina) Shah Abbas (Abbas the Great) Safavid culture drew from the best of Ottoman, Persian, and Arab worlds 2 new armies loyal to him alone Army of Persians Force like Ottoman janissaries Reformed govt – punished corruption Established relations with Europe – industry and art Brought Chinese artisans to Empire Rebuilt capital city - Isfahan Shah Abbas Killed/blinded ablest sons Succeeded by incompetent grandson, Safi Same road that led to decline of Ottomans 1722 – Armies in Afghanistan took over eastern portions of Safavid Empire 1736 Ruler from Sunni Family – Nadir Shah Afshar took command Conquered all the way to India and created new Persian Empire One of his own troops assassinated him Died in 1747 – empire almost fell apart Safavid Culture Worldly and artistic features of Persian civilization mingled with Shi’a Islam Based on Ottoman model Welcomed foreigners Created a slave army similar to janissaries Mughal Empire Akbar and Aurangzeb crash course https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nbuM0aJjVgE Mughal Empire People who invaded India – Mughals Clashed with Hindus 1494 – 11 year old named Babur inherited kingdom – Uzbekistan and Tajikistan Babur Built strong army Swept into India Strong, sensitive 1526 – Led 12,000 troops to victory against army of 100,000 led by sultan of Delhi Grandson would also do good for Mughals Akbar “Great One” Ruled India from 1556-1605 Muslim and defended religious freedom Allowed his many wives to practice their religious rituals in his palace Abolished tax on Hindu pilgrims (jizya) – tax on non-Muslims Appointed Spanish Jesuit to teach son Cultural blending! Taxes Effective taxation policy Calculated tax as a percent of the value of the peasants’ crops, similar to graduated income in US Land Policies Gave generous land grants to bureaucrats After they died, Akbar reclaimed lands and distributed them as he saw fit Prevented growth of feudal aristocracies Did not encourage dedication and hard work by Mughal officers – children would not inherit their land Military Strength Military power = root of strength Believed in war for its own sake Heavy artillery Cannons Unified land of 100 million people – more than all of Europe put together Culture Welcome other influences Persian – language in high court Common people spoke Hindi – mixture of Persian and local language Mughal armies – Urdu “Blend of Arabic, Persian, and Hindi Official language of Pakistan today Capital of Fetehpur Sikri (India) Shah Jahan Assassinated all possible rivals to secure throne Loved beautiful buildings Loved his wife – Mumtaz Muhal at 38 after giving birth to 14th child Ordered a tomb to be built “as beautiful as she was beautiful”. 20,000 workers labored for 22 years Does anyone know what this is describing? Died Taj Mahal Aurangzeb He’s important Ruled fro 1658 – 1707 Master at military strategy Aggressive Empire Builder Expanded empire to its greatest size, but the power weakened during his reign Why do you think that was? Aurangzeb Oppressed the people Enforced Islamic laws No drinking, gambling, and other vices Appointed censors Had to pray at appointed times Tried to erase gains Hindus made under Akbar Brought back tax on non-Muslims (what was this called?) Had Hindu monuments destroyed Decline Rebellion against Aurangzeb Drained empire of its resources Most of his subjects felt little loyalty to him Over 2 million died in famine when Aurangzeb was waging war Power of local lords grew Decline Future emperors ruled not an empire but patchwork of independent states English traders began to reach India Didn’t feel threatened by them Shah Jahan let them build a port at Bombay in 1661 He had no idea these would be India’s next conquerors Activity Take a few minutes to write a recipe for creating and maintaining a successful empire. Use the knowledge you just gained about the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals as your gui to do so.