Respiratory System - Napa Valley College

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Respiratory System

Chapter 11

Objectives

Identify the organs of the respiratory system

Locate the structures of the respiratory system

Identify the functions of the respiratory system

Review some disorders of the respiratory system

Review some laboratory test and procedures

Functions of the Respiratory

System

Breathing process

Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Enable speech production

How it works:

Consist of a series of tubes that transport air in an out of the lungs.

Function is to supply oxygen to the body cells and to transport carbon dioxide which is produced by the body cells into the atmosphere

There are two forms of respiration exchange

1: External respiration

Oxygen is inhaled (inhaled air is about 21% oxygen) into the air sacs of the lungs

It is then immediately passed into tiny capillary blood vessels surrounding the air spaces

External respiration contd:

Simultaneously, carbon dioxide, ( a gas produced when oxygen and food combine in cells) passes from the capillary blood vessels into the air spaces of the lungs to be exhaled.

Exhaled air contains 16% oxygen

Mostly an involuntary activity

2. Internal respiration

Happens simultaneously as external respiration

Occurs between the individual body cells and the tiny capillary blood vessels

Involves an exchange of gases at the cells with in all organs of the body

Oxygen passes out of the blood stream into tissue cells

Cellular respiration:

Further use of the body cells to use oxygen to produce energy

Release of carbon dioxide and water

FYI:

RR

= respiratory rate

Respiratory rate is the rate per minute of inhaling and exhaling

A normal rate for an adult is 16 to 18 times a minute

Structures of Respiratory System

 upper respiratory tract

 nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx and trachea

 lower respiratory tract

 bronchial tree and lungs

Respiratory tract divided into:

Upper Respiratory tract:

Nose:

(nostrils or nares).

When we inhale air enters the body through the nose via the nasal nares

Then passes trough the nasal cavity

This cavity is lined with mucous membranes and fine hairs called

cilia

that filter out foreign bodies and also warm and moisten the air

Nose

 nasal cavity nasal septum mucous membrane

 mucus cilia olfactory receptors

Upper respiratory contd:

Pharynx

(throat)

After passing through the nasal cavity air reaches the pharynx

A 5 inch muscular tube that extends from the base of the skull to the esophagus

The airway that connects the mouth and nose to the larynx

Pharynx: Divided into three sections

Pharynx contd:

Nasopharynx:

nearest the nasal cavity and contain

adenoids (

masses of lymphatic tissue)

If enlarged it can obstruct airway

Equalize pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane.

Pharynx Contd:

Oropharynx:

located behind the mouth

Muscular soft palate that contains the uvula and tonsils.

Pharynx contd:

Laryngopharynx:

surrounds the opening of the esophagus

Also known as the hypo pharynx

Serves as a common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose

Divided into two branches

larynx

and

esophagus

Pharynx

Nasopharynx

 adenoids or pharyngeal tonsils

 oropharynx

 palatine tonsils

 laryngopharynx

 larynx

Pharynx: Divided into three sections

Larynx: Voice box

Covered by the epiglottis which is a small flap of cartilage that is attached to the roof of the tongue

Connects the pharynx to the trachea (where air goes down into the lungs)

Contains the vocal cords and is surrounded by nine cartilages for support

Tension of the vocal cords determine the high or low pitch of the voice

Lower Respiratory Tract:

Trachea: Wind pipe

A 10 to 12 cm long tube

Extends into the chest

Serves as passageway for air into the bronchi

Kept open by 16 to 20 C shaped rings made of cartilage

Some of the rings make up the thyroid cartilage forming the

Adams apple

Bronchi

Trachea branches into two tubes called

bronchi

Bronchi

= plural

bronchus =

singular

Right is primary (main) and shorter than the left

Each bronchus enters the lung and subdivides into smaller tubes

The smallest is called

bronchioles

Bronchi contd:

At the end of the bronchioles are clusters of air sacs called

alveoli

Alveoli =

plural

alveolus =

singular

Each is lined with a layer of epithelium

This very thin wall permits the exchange of gasses between the alveoli and the capillaries

Lungs:

Located in the thoracic cavity

Right lung has three lobes

Left lung has two lobes

Oxygen passes from the lungs into the capillaries ( network of tiny blood vessels) that surround the alveoli and distributes them to the cells

Carbon dioxide from the blood cells passes into the lungs for removal

Right-3 lobes

Lungs trachea

Left-2 lobes

Lungs contd:

When oxygen is absorbed into the blood it attaches to the hemoglobin and is released as needed.

Each lung is covered by a membrane called

pleura

The outer layer (near the ribs)

parietal pleura

The inner layer (closet to the lungs)

visceral pleura

Lungs contd:

A serous fluid ( thin, watery lubricating fluid) moistens the pleura

This facilitates movement between the pleuras and prevent friction

Lungs extend from the collar bone to the diaphragm

Lungs contd:

Diaphragm: is a muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

This muscles aids in the process of breathing

Breathing is the process of

inhalation

and

exhalation

Lungs contd:

Inhalation: (inspiration)

the diaphragm contracts and descends causing enlargement of the thoracic cavity area

This allows air to flow into the lungs to equalize the pressure

Inhalation

Breathing in

Body gets oxygen from the air

Rib muscles contract to pull ribs up and out

Diaphragm muscle contracts to pull down the lungs

Tissue expands to force (pull) in air.

Lungs contd:

Exhalation: (expiration)

when the lungs are full, the diaphragm relaxes and elevates making the thoracic cavity smaller

This increases the air pressure in the thorax

Air is then expelled out of the lungs to equalize the pressure

Exhalation

Breathing out

Get rid of carbon dioxide

Rib muscles relax

Diaphragm muscle relaxes

Tissue returns to resting position and forces

(pushes) air out

http://users.tpg.com.au/users/amcgann/body/respiratory.html

Respiratory Root Words:

Adenoid/o

Alveol/o

Atel/o

Bronch/o

Bronchi/o

Epiglott/o

Laryng/o

Nas/o, rhin/o

Adenoids

Alveolus, air sac

Imperfect, incomplete

Bronchus

Bronchial tubes

Epiglottis

Larynx

Nose

Root words contd:

Ox/o, Ox/i

Pharyng/o

Pleur/o

Pneum/o

Pulmon/o

Spir/o

Thorac/o

Tonsill/o

Trache/o oxygen throat

Pleura

Lung, air

Lung

To breathe

Chest

Tonsils

Trachea

Respiratory Prefixes:

An-, a-

Endo-

Inter-

Intra-

Without, absent

Within

Between

Within

Respiratory suffixes:

-ar, -ary

-capnia

-centesis

-ectasis

-gram

-graphy

-itis

Pertaining to

Carbon dioxide

Surgical puncture with needle to aspirate fluid

Stretching or expansion

Record

Process of recording

Inflammation

Suffixes contd:

-ostomy

-oxia

-pnea

-scope

-scopy

-stenosis

-thorax creation of an artificial opening oxygen breathing instrument used to examine visual examination narrowing or contracting chest

Suffixes contd:

-ptysis

-sphyxia

-osmia spitting pulse smell

A few lung disorders:

Lung abscess: a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissue

Asthma

Spasm and narrowing of bronchi, leading to bronchial airway obstruction

Bronchitis

Inflammation of one or more bronchi

Coryza

Profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose

Deviated septum

Defect in the wall between the nostrils that cause partial or complete obstruction

Epistaxis

Hemorrhage from the nose; nose bleed

Hiatal hernia

Protrusion of part of the stomach into the chest through the esophageal hiatus defect of the diaphragm

Pleural effusion

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which compresses the underlying potion of the lung causing dyspnea

Emphysema:

Destruction of alveolar walls

Lung cancer

Leading cause of cancer death for men and women

Respiratory general terms

Anoxia -

without oxygen

Apnea-

temporary cessation of breathing

Aphonia-

absence of voice

Bifurcation-

a division into two branches

Bronchospasm-

sporadic contraction of the bronchi muscle

Dysphonia-

difficulty in speaking

Contd:

Cyanosis-

a bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood

Eupnea-

normal breathing

Hemoptysis-

coughing up of blood from the lungs

Hyperventilation-

increased rate and depth of respiration

Contd:

Hypoxia-

insufficient oxygen

Orthopnea-

difficult breathing except in upright position

Rales, rhonchi-

abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation

Sputum-

matter ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs through the mouth

Diagnostic and instruments used:

Auscultation-

listening to the lungs through a stethoscope

Percussion-

short sharp blows to the body with the fingers

Bronchoscopy-

lung examination using a bronchoscope

Endotracheal catheter-

an airway catheter inserted into the trachea during surgery

Contd:

Oximetry-

measurement of the oxygen saturation of arterial blood

Peak expiratory flow rate-

measurement of how fast a person can exhale using a small hand held device

Medical procedures and tests:

Blood gases-

blood drawn to check oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the blood

Bronchodilator-

an agent used to dilate the bronchi

CPR-

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

IPPB-

intermittent positive pressure breathing

Larngectomy-

excision of the larynx

Contd:

Lavage of sinuses-

the irrigation or washing out of sinuses

Lobectomy-

excision of a lobe of the lung

Ma

ntoux-

TB skin test

PPD-

purified protein derivative (TB test)

Pulmonary function-

test to assess ventilator status

Contd:

Rhinoplasty-

plastic surgery of the nose

Scan-

an image or picture produced using radioactive isotopes

Thoracentesis-

surgical puncture of the chest wall into the parietal cavity to remove fluid

Tracheotomy-

incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck

Bronchoscopy

Tracheotomy

The End!

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