Some items borrowed from: Susan M. Pojer, Horace Greeley HS, Chappaqua, NY TODAY’S OBJECTIVE: The student will analyze the causes and effects of industrialization during the 19th century in the U.S. by completing a graphic organizer GENERALIZATION: Technological innovations often lead to industrialization, a change in economic systems, and urbanization. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: • How does technology change society? • How did technological innovations change the U.S. in the early 19th century? CONCEPTS: • • • • Technological innovations Industrialization Economic systems Urbanization • Write each of the concepts on a Frayer model organizer. • Discuss with a partner what you think each means. • Think of an example of each. • Finally, discuss with the class and teacher and clarify and add to your definitions and examples. In 1800… • Each family farm created most of their needs (food, clothing, simple tools, etc.) • Larger items (plows, harnesses) were either imported or created locally Causes of Industrialization in the U.S. • Economic Changes After the War of 1812 • Spread of the Industrial Revolution from Great Britain and Europe to America • Rise of the factory system in the U.S. • Growing market for goods and raw materials in Europe and the U.S. Causes of Industrialization in the U.S. • While the South and West developed the agricultural basis for the national economy, the Northeast was laying the foundation for an industrial revolution. Cumberland (National Road), 1811 Erie Canal System Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825 Principal Canals in 1840 Robert Fulton & the Steamboat 1807: The Clermont The Railroad Revolution, 1850s Immigrant labor built the No. RRs. Slave labor built the So. RRs. Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 Actually invented by a slave! Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts Rifle Samuel Slater • Early English-American industrialist known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution” • "Father of the American Factory System" because he brought British textile technology to America • Learned textile machinery as an apprentice to a pioneer in the British industry • Brought the knowledge to America where he designed the first textile mills, went into business for himself and grew wealthy The Lowell/Waltham System: First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814 Lowell in 1850 Lowell Mill Early Textile Loom New England Textile Centers: 1830s New England Dominance in Textiles Starting for Lowell Lowell Girls What was their typical “profile?” Irish Immigrant Girls at Lowell John Deere & the Steel Plow (1837) Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831 Regional Specialization EAST Industrial SOUTH Cotton & Slavery WEST The Nation’s “Breadbasket” Changed Life in America • Working - More women and children worked outside the home in factories • Farming - New inventions allowed farmers to produce more crops more cheaply • Living - People moved to cities from farms (urbanization) • Traveling - Much easier, so more people moved further west Urbanization Began American Population Centers in 1820 American Population Centers in 1860 National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860 Why now? Changing Occupation Distributions: 1820 - 1860 Humans Modified their Environment, with positive and negative consequences. Positive Negative Characteristics of the Free Enterprise System: • Right to choose jobs and professions • Private property • Limited government involvement in the economy (to protect the public interest and keep the national economy in balance) • Competition and freedom of choice for consumers Competition drives down prices. Producers are constantly looking for ways to make better and cheaper products in order to compete with others who produce the same or similar items. make economic decisions in the marketplace Consumers have the freedom to choose Characteristics of the Free Enterprise System: • Profit motive Profit is the motivating force in the free enterprise system, incentive for production Therefore, producers want to supply goods and services that are in demand by consumers What do you think was the most important cause and effect of the Industrial Revolution during this time? Explain why. TODAY’S OBJECTIVE: The student will analyze the causes and effects of industrialization during the 19th century in the U.S. by completing a graphic organizer GENERALIZATION: Technological innovations often lead to industrialization, a change in economic systems, and urbanization. How did technological innovations change the U.S. in the early 19th century?