Heracles/Hercules Glorious through Hera? kle-os speech, fame, glory 200 01-6167 200 01-8491 200 01-9302 200 01-9774 200 02-0218 200 02-0622 200 02-1451 200 02-2570 200 02-4660 200 02-5686 200 03-2705 200 03-3835 200 03-5567 200 03-6675 200 04-0538 200 04-0643 200 04-0734 200 04-1158 200 04-9506 200 04-9808 200 05-5026 200 05-5966 200 05-6406 200 05-6949 200 05-7032 200 05-7054 200 05-7681 200 05-9295 200 05-9327 200 06-1454 200 06-1465 200 06-1580 200 06-1722 26 25 20 27 22 29 23 20 25 27 30 24 24 16 16 18 23 22 22 22 27 25 22 22 27 27 15 20 26 25 14 12 22 200 06-2369 200 06-3840 200 06-5888 200 06-6965 200 06-9315 200 06-9770 200 07-1694 200 07-4101 200 07-5072 200 07-6087 200 07-7391 200 07-8502 200 07-8946 200 08-1382 200 08-1968 200 08-2160 200 08-2388 200 08-2805 200 08-4147 200 08-5078 200 08-5828 200 08-6865 200 09-1659 200 09-2003 200 09-3533 200 09-3898 200 09-4129 200 09-4556 200 09-5125 200 09-5170 200 09-5549 200 09-8639 200 09-9618 24 27 26 17 25 21 25 28 23 17 26 27 24 20 18 27 24 25 27 25 26 16 23 23 23 21 28 18 19 23 21 23 20 200 10-0944 200 10-1436 200 10-1782 200 10-1935 200 10-2038 200 10-2132 200 10-2428 200 10-3037 200 10-5360 200 10-5363 200 10-7739 200 10-8971 200 10-9934 200 11-2691 200 11-3422 200 11-4357 200 11-5159 200 11-5717 200 11-5893 200 11-5977 200 39-664 556 00-4469 893 01-5859 933 01-8389 933 02-2061 942 01-0078 943 01-1641 962 00-0025 962 01-0761 963 01-4457 973 00-7839 23 21 20 26 26 18 15 28 25 22 14 26 27 19 17 28 24 21 24 19 20 23 26 23 26 25 28 25 0 18 19 hero, aretê, kleos, aristos, timê, aidos, charis •Heroes/demi-gods - a peculiarity of Greek religion two senses: the Homeric figures en masse, or a deceased person who exerts from his grave a power for good or evil and who demands appropriate honour the hero cult - the heroon, sacrifices, gifts and grave monument from 8th century old graves are discovered and attributed to epic heroes the Nilsson thesis, hero cult a direct continuation of the Mycenaean cult of the dead contending forces of 1) the aristocratic cult of the dead, 2) claims of the polis, 3) Homeric epic heroes are almost always confined to a specific locality: if the same hero is worshipped in two places, homonyms are assumed, but sometimes disputes break out the roster of heroes is never fixed: apheroizein in Hellenistic times of the deceased; heros ktistes of the founder, who is buried in the market place; Cleisthenes (508 BC) and the ten tribes heroes are manifest as ghosts, but especially as snakes, and when ignored can bring plagues through their menima: the honour of an anonymous heros; the benefit from an appeased hero, especially in battle heroes are pictured in the full force of youth and worshipped by youth in gymnasia, each with its own hero Homeric Hymn 15 I will sing of Heracles, the son of Zeus and much the best (aristos) of those on earth. Alcmene bore him in Thebes, the city of lovely dances, when the dark-clouded Son of Cronos had lain with her. Once he used to wander over unmeasured tracts of land and sea  at the bidding of King Eurystheus, and himself did many reckless (atasthala) deeds of and endured many; but now he lives happily in the glorious home of snowy Olympus, and has neat-ankled Hebe for his wife. Hail, lord, son of Zeus! Give me success and prosperity. Homer, Iliad 19. 95 Once Hera blinded Zeus, although men say that he is the greatest among men and gods; yet even him Hera, though feminine, beguiled in her craftiness on the day when Alcmene in fair-crowned Thebe was to bring forth the mighty Heracles.  Zeus indeed spoke proudly among all the gods: ‘Listen to me, all you gods and goddesses, that I may speak what the heart in my breast bids me. This day shall Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, bring to the light a man who shall be the lord (anax) of all them that dwell round about,  even one of the race of those men who are of me by blood.’ But with crafty mind the queenly Hera spoke to him:‘You will play the cheat, and not bring your word to fulfillment. Come, Olympian, swear to me now a mighty oath that in very truth that man shall be lord of all them that dwell round about,  whoever this day shall fall between a woman's feet, even one of those men who are of the blood of your stock.’ So she spoke; and Zeus in no way noticed her craftiness, but swore a great oath, and in so doing was blinded sore. But Hera darted down and left the peak of Olympus,  and swiftly came to Achaean Argos, where she knew was the stately wife of Sthenelus, son of Perseus, that carried a son in her womb, and the seventh month was come. This child Hera brought forth to the light even before the full tale of the months, but stayed Alcmene's bearing, and held back the Eileithyia.  And she spoke to Zeus, son of Cronos: ‘Father Zeus, lord of the bright lightning, a word will I speak for your heeding. Look, even now, there is born a valiant man that shall be lord over the Argives, even Eurystheus, son of Sthenelus, the son of Perseus, of your own lineage; not improper is it that he be lord over the Argives.’  So she spoke, and sharp pain struck him in the deep of his heart, and he quickly seized Ate by her brightly clad head, angry in his soul, and swore a mighty oath that never again to Olympus and the starry heaven should Ate come, she that blinds all.  So said he, and whirling her in his hand flung her from the starry heaven, and quickly she came to the tilled fields of men. At thought of her would he ever groan, when he beheld his dear son in unseemly labour beneath Eurystheus' tasks. Pindar, Nemean 1 But as for me, I cling to the theme of Heracles gladly, rousing an ancient story from among the great heights of his excellence,  how, when the son of Zeus suddenly came out of his mother’s womb into the brilliant light, escaping her birth-pangs, with his twin brother, he did not escape the notice of gold-throned Hera when he was placed in his saffron swaddling-clothes. But the queen of the gods,  stung in her heart, immediately sent serpents. Sophocles, Philoctetes [Heracles appears above the stage.] Know that your ears perceive the voice of Heracles, and that you look upon his face. For your sake I have left my divine seat and come  to reveal to you the purposes of Zeus, and to halt the journey on which you are departing. Hearken to my words. First I would tell you of my own fortunes — how, by toiling through and enduring so many toils (ponoi) to the end, I have won immortal aretê, as you witness. . . . For the healing of your sickness, I will send Asclepius to Troy, since it is doomed to fall a second time  before my arrows. But of this be mindful, when you plunder the land — that you show reverence towards the gods. Do this because Father Zeus regards all else as of less account, and because Piety does not die along with mortals. Whether they are alive or dead, their piety does not perish. Amphitryon, Eurystheus, Athloi, ponoi Nemean lion Lernaean Hydra Ceryneian hind Erymanthian boar Augean stables Stymphalian birds Cretan bull Horses of Diomedes Girdle of Hippolyta Cattle of Geryon Apples of the Hesperides Cerberus Metope Heracles I am performing a certain labor for Eurystheus, king of Tiryns. Chorus-Leader Where are you bound? What is the wandering you are constrained to make? Heracles I go in quest of the four-horse chariot of Thracian Diomedes. Chorus-Leader How can you do that? Do you not know what kind of host he is? Heracles  I do not. I have never yet been to Bistonia. Chorus-Leader You cannot possess those horses without a fight. Heracles But all the same, I cannot decline these labors. Chorus-Leader Then you will either kill him and return or end your days there. Like the others this labor you name befits my destiny  (which is always hard and steep) since I am fated to do battle with all the sons of Ares: first Lycaon, then Cycnus, and now this is the third contest I enter, going off to fight horses and master alike.  But no one shall ever see Alcmene's son quake at the hand of an enemy. Hesiod, Theogony But Chrysaor was joined in love to Callirrhoe, the daughter of glorious Ocean, and begot three-headed Geryoneus. Him mighty Heracles slew  in sea-girt Erythea by his shambling cattle on that day when he drove the wide-browed oxen to holy Tiryns, and had crossed the ford of Ocean and killed Orthus and Eurytion the herdsman in the dim stead out beyond glorious Ocean. Cf. 982. And again Echidna bore a third, the evil-minded Hydra of Lerna, whom the goddess, white-armed Hera nourished,  being angry beyond measure with the mighty Heracles. And her Heracles, the son of Zeus, of the house of Amphitryon, together with warlike Iolaus, destroyed with the unpitying sword through the plans of Athena the spoil driver. Echidna was subject in love to Orthus and brought forth the deadly Sphinx which destroyed the Cadmeans, and the Nemean lion, which Hera, the good wife of Zeus, brought up and made to haunt the hills of Nemea, a plague to men.  There he preyed upon the tribes of her own people and had power over Tretus of Nemea and Apesas: yet the strength of stout Heracles overcame him. Stymphalian Birds Cretan Bull Garden of the Hesperides  My father rages with evil mind, cruel as he is, ever difficult, a thwarter of my purposes; neither has he any memory of this, that often I saved his son when he was defeated by reason of Eurystheus' tasks. For he would make lament toward heaven and from heaven would Zeus  send me forth to rescue him. Had I but known all this in wisdom of my heart when Eurystheus sent him forth to the house of Hades the Warder, to bring from out of Erebus the hound of loathed Hades, then had he not escaped the sheer-falling waters of Styx. Pholus and the Centaurs Apollo and the Tripod Andromache and the Amazons Bousiris The Centaur Nessus and Deianeira Achelous the river god apotheosis Aristotle, Poetics 8 A plot does not have unity, as some people think, simply because it deals with a single hero. Many and indeed innumerable things happen to an individual, some of which do not go to make up any unity, and similarly an individual is concerned in many actions which do not combine into a single piece of action.  It seems therefore that all those poets are wrong who have written a Heracleid or Theseid or other such poems. They think that because Heracles was a single individual the plot must for that reason have unity. Homer, Odyssey 11.(717) And after him I marked the mighty Heracles — his phantom; for he himself among the immortal gods takes his joy in the feast, and has to wife Hebe, of the fair ankles, daughter of great Zeus and of Here, of the golden sandals.  About him rose a clamor from the dead, as of birds flying everywhere in terror; and he like dark night, with his bow bare and with arrow on the string, glared about him terribly, like one in act to shoot. Awful was the belt about his breast,  a baldric of gold, whereon wondrous things were fashioned, bears and wild boars, and lions with flashing eyes, and conflicts, and battles, and murders, and slayings of men. May he never have designed, or hereafter design such another, even he who stored up in his craft the device of that belt.  He in turn knew me when his eyes beheld me, and weeping spoke to me winged words: “‘Son of Laertes, sprung from Zeus, Odysseus of many devices, ah, wretched man, do you, too, drag out an evil lot such as I once bore beneath the rays of the sun?  I was the son of Zeus, son of Cronos, but I had woe beyond measure; for to a man far worse than I was I made subject, and he laid on me hard labours. He once sent me off to fetch the hound of Hades, for he could devise for me no other task mightier than this.  The hound I carried off and led forth from the house of Hades; and Hermes was my guide, and flashing-eyed Athena.’ Hesiod, Theogony And ready-witted Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew  as much again everyway as the longwinged bird devoured in the whole day. That bird Heracles, the valiant son of shapely-ankled Alcmene, slew; and delivered the son of Iapetus from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction — not without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high,  that the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and honored his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath which he had before because Prometheus matched himself in wit with the almighty son of Cronos. Aristotle, Politics 3 1284a This is why democratically governed states institute the system of ostracism, because of a reason of this nature; for these are the states considered to pursue equality most of all things,  so that they used to ostracize men thought to be outstandingly powerful on account of wealth or popularity or some other form of political strength, and used to banish them out of the city for fixed periods of time. And there is a mythical story that the Argonauts left Heracles behind for a similar reason; for the Argo refused to carry him with the others because he was so much heavier than the sailors.