nd 2 9 Weeks Test Review Transition to Modern America The Great Depression and New Deal America Reacts to World at War Characteristics of the Transition to Modern America • Speculation • Economic Boom • The Great Migration • Harlem Renaissance The Great Migration • The Great Migration was when a large number of African Americans traveled from the South to the North for better economic opportunities. Harlem Renaissance • The Harlem Renaissance was a time period where African American culture spread, which included literature and music. Social Darwinism • Social Darwinism is the idea that only the best suited people will survive. • This idea was applied to business people, where only the fittest would survive in free marketplace. Characteristics of the Great Depression •Overproduction of industrial goods •High tariffs on imported goods •Monetary policy •Buying Stocks on the margin Great Depression • 1930-1939 • Causes: • • • • • Prior overproduction of goods High tariffs on imported goods The decline of agriculture prices Buying stocks on the margin (economic factor) High tariffs assisted in the Great Depression because, it cut off U.S. exports • Effect: • Unemployment increased • U.S. citizens of Mexican descent were deported Emergency Banking Relief Act • Emergency Banking Relief Act: allowed banks that were in good financial shape stay open for business. Banks in Texas •In the 1930’s there were fewer banks in Texas that shut down each year. F.D.R. • FDR wanted to add more supreme court judges, because the supreme court declared New Deal programs unconstitutional. • If Roosevelt was able to add more judges then most likely he would have appointed people who supports his New Deal programs. America Reacts to World at War Munich Conference •Great Britain and France hoped to achieve peace through appeasement. •In doing so they caved into Hitler’s demands. Lend Lease Act • The US provided arms and ships to friendly European nations fighting Germany • The Lend Lease Act helped prepare the US to convert to military production. Economic Effect of WWII • WWII helped end the Great Depression because the US moved to war time production which created more jobs. Pearl Harbor •The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor caused the immediate US entry into WWII. A day that will live in infamy •December 7th, 1941 is referred to as “A day that will live in infamy” because of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Executive Order 9066 • Roosevelt to passed the Executive Order 9066, which created internment camps for Japanese Americans Presidential Powers • During the time of war, President Roosevelt’s powers were expanded because the nation was in a state of emergency American Patriotism • Civilians helped the government pay for the war by purchasing war bonds. • Civilians were encouraged to plant Victory Gardens to help conserve food for the soldiers overseas. • The government also enforced civilian rationing in order to increase the availability of supplies and products for the war effort. War Bonds Victory Gardens Rationing Rosie the Riveter •Rosie the Riveter was created in order to encourage women to work in factories.