India Republic of India General Information • One of the oldest civilizations in the world occurred here. It was called the Indus Civilization. • They date back at least 5,000 years. • In 1500 B.C., Aryan tribes from the Northwest invaded. • When these tribes intermingled with the existing people in India, and the commonly known Indian culture. • In the 8th and 12th century A.D., India was invaded by the Arabs and then the Turkish people respectively. • Once the 15th century began, European traders arrived. • As the 19th century progressed, India was virtually overtaken by Great Britain. • People in India began a non-violent resistance to British colonialism. • The two leaders of this movement were called Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. • These two men led India to independence in 1947. • At this point, India and Pakistan were divided. • In 1971, another war broke out between Pakistan and India. • At this point, East Pakistan became Bangladesh. • The people of India experience extensive poverty and religious strife. Location • Absolute: 20° North Latitude and 77° East Longitude. • Relative: Southern Asia. Borders the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. Place • Area-Comparative: Slightly more than 1/3rd the size of the U.S. Climate: They experience everything from a tropical monsoon in the South to temperate in the Northern area. • Terrain: There is an upland plain named the Deccan Plateau that is located in the South. Along the Ganges River there are flat and rolling plains. Deserts are located in the West. The Himalayas are in the North. • Natural Hazards that they face are as follows: Droughts, Flash Floods, Big Thunderstorms, and finally Earthquakes. • India dominates the South Asian continent. • India is strategically located near Indian Ocean trade routes. • Ethnicity: Indo-Aryan 72% Dravidian 25% Mongoloid and Other 3% • Religions: Hindu 81.3% Muslim 12% Christian 2.3 % Sikh 1.9% Other Groups 2.5% • Languages: Hindi is the official language. English is also used for politics. Human and Environmental Interaction: • • • • • • Deforestation Soil Erosion Overgrazing Desertification Air Pollution from Automobiles Water Pollution from raw Sewage • Tap water is not potable throughout the country. • Large population is straining the resources of the country. Movement • • • • • • • Railways Highways Waterways Pipelines Ports and Harbors: Calcutta, Bombay. Airports: 334 total, and 232 are paved. Heliports: 19 Illicit Drugs • Producer of Opium for pharmaceutical and legal use. • Illicit use of legally grown Opium is a problem. • Vulnerable to Narcotics and money laundering. Region • Indo-Chinese border is being disputed. • Problems with Pakistan over ceding lands in Kashmir. • Problems with Pakistan over Indus River.