Defending Common Sense Direct Realism The trouble with sense-data Key feature of Representative Realism and anti-realist theories. But… The object/appearance argument is mistaken. 2-D mental objects cannot resemble 3-D objects. Only another three-dimensional sphere can resemble a sphere. Sense-data can just represent – but how to make sense of this? For X to represent Y there needs to be a representation scheme. With sense-data we can’t know the representation scheme as we can’t compare reality to the representation. Scepticism - I am trapped behind a ‘veil of perception’. Problems for anti-realism? Where are they? They are mental entities. Mind is the brain - But you will not find any coloured two-dimensional objects in my brain. If the mind is something distinct from the brain – a non-physical thing – then you do not have this problem. The Speckled Hen and the problem of indeterminate sense-data. Saving directness… The plausibility of direct realism can be supported by the way it deals with the criticisms it faces. In particular the problem of how error, misperception and illusion can occur. It is part of a common-sense realism to allow that there can be variation in the way things look. But, The appeal to common-sense may just appear to beg the question. Perceptual states are belief states or a mixture of belief states and sensations. The problem of misperception or hallucination becomes a species of the problem of false beliefs. This is a general problem in epistemology, so the direct realist need not feel any particular embarrassment when confronted by the problem of misperception. Disjunctivism On the realist account there is a difference between the experience of a person having a veridical perceptual experience and one who is having a non-veridical experience purportedly of the same object. The nature of my true belief that there is a tree before me depends on it being about that tree. The about-ness of the belief is tied essentially to the thing in the world. Even if the veridical and non-veridical perceptual beliefs feel the same, there is no ‘separable’ purely internal element which the true belief shares with the false one. They are different and so the problem of hallucination need not arise. Analogy – what internal features does the Mona Lisa share with a good fake?