Chapter 10

I have to do what?
Choosing and
Developing your Topic
Research Paper/Speech
•Research from several credible sources are analyzed and
integrated to support a chosen viewpoint.
•An outline is created to provide an organizational plan for
the research.
•All sources are acknowledged within the work.
•The subject matter is broadened or narrowed to meet
assignment needs.
Research Paper
•Research is integrated into a fulltext manuscript. A brief keyword
outline may be included to provide
a content overview.
•Research is integrated into a
comprehensive full-sentence
outline with a works cited.
•The manuscript has been carefully
checked for all spelling and grammar
errors prior to submission.
•Content from the outline is
condensed into a user friendly format
for note cards.
•Sources are acknowledge within the
manuscript through the use of internal
•Sources are acknowledged within
the speech through the use of vocal
• A works cited should be included
with the paper.
•A conversational oral presentation is
fine tuned through a series of
•No changes are made once the
paper is submitted.
•Grammar and wording is never
exactly the same.
•Visual aids are generally not a part of
the research paper.
•Visual aids are often included to
increase comprehension and add
interest to the vocal delivery.
•Consider the Speaker - YOU!
•Consider the AUDIENCE!
•Who are they? – demographics
•Why are they here?
• motivation (passerby, captive, or volunteer)
•What do they consider important?
• values, attitudes, beliefs
•Consider the OCCASION!
•Time, place, atmosphere
•Type of speech
• informative,
•special occasion,
I’ve chosen my topic. Now what?
Conduct Background Research
• Helps you select a topic which is
appropriate and will meet the guidelines
for your assignment.
• Reference Sources such as encyclopedias
and almanacs are great places to start.
Identify your purpose
• Develop a General Purpose
– To inform; to persuade; to entertain; to narrate; to
motivate; to celebrate
• Develop a Specific Purpose Statement
– Describes exactly what you want your speech to
– Measurable:
• Receiver Oriented: How will if affect audience?
• After my speech the audience will …
• Topic: Teenage Driving
• General Purpose
– To Inform
• Specific Purpose Statement
– After my speech, the audience will know three
reasons why teenage drivers are more likely
to be involved in motor vehicle accidents.
Conduct In-depth Research
• Where can I look for information?
– On-line
• Note: material originally created for use on the internet = online
– Off-line
• Note: material originally in published form, but found on-line is
considered an off-line source
– Primary research: generated by you
• Interviews, surveys (25-50); Personal observation
• How do I decide which research is best?
– Evaluate the source
Who wrote it?
Is it biased?
Is it current?
Does it appropriate for my needs?
Is it appropriate for my audience?
– Scholarly versus Non-scholarly
– Wikipedia and are not scholarly
• What is the website domain - .gov .net .com .org
or .edu
Annotated Bibliographies
•Provide a rationale for your source
•Styles vary by instructor.
•Three ways to analyze:
•Summarize article
•Assess source reliability and credibility
• author, source origination, intended audience, bias, and currency
•Reflect on how you will use this information
Works Cited
•Many styles are available such as APA,
MLA, Chicago, and Turabian
•Be sure to use the style approved by your
•Style guides are available to help with
creating a works cited.