USHC 2.1 Westward Expansion STRICT NORTHWEST PASSAGE? New Orleans Westward Expansion STRICT Does the Constitution permit the Federal government the purchase land? Treaty? TRADE OBJECTIVES: Economic Coercion Avoid War (Get Britain to stop impressing American sailors without going to war) RESULT: FAILURE NEW ENGLAND HENRY CLAY (KY) JOHN C. CALHOUN (SC) PROVOCATIONS 1. Impressment of Sailors 2. Cutting off Trade 3. Arming Native Americans on the western frontier JAMES MADISON FOURTH PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. CONSEQUENCES GEN. ANDREW JACKSON 1. Surge of national pride AMERICA! (nationalism) 2. Andrew Jackson: National Hero Although the Battle of New Orleans took place after the Treaty of Ghent was signed, the Battle of New Orleans was important because the decisive victory gave Americans a sense of national pride. The Champion of the Common [White] Man Introduced the Spoils System Oregon Treaty (1846) Mexican Cession (1848) Gadsden Purchase (1853) Louisiana Purchase (1803) Texas Annexation (1845) USHC 2.2 Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny affected the United States’ relationships with foreign powers, including the role of the United States in the Texan Revolution and the Mexican War. The Monroe Doctrine Revolutions in Latin America Europe wants colonies back The Monroe Doctrine “The American continents… are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. . .” EUROPE: NO NEW COLONIES You don’t have an army. LIMITED IMPACT The Legacy: US intervention in Latin America John Gast, American Progress, 1872 Manifest Destiny man⋅i⋅fest (adj) evident; obvious; apparent; plain des⋅ti⋅ny (n) predetermined, usually inevitable or irresistible, course of events. WESTWARD EXPANSION: A God-given Right John Gast, American Progress, 1872 Texas War for Independence 1835-1836 The Alamo (1836) San Jacinto (1836) Outnumbered Texans defeated Prisoners executed DECISIVE Texas Victory “Remember the Alamo!” The “Lone Star” Republic Annexation of Texas 1837 – Texas petitions the U.S. for annexation United States: NO! TWO REASONS: Border Dispute The Balance of Power Meanwhile… John Gast, American Progress, 1872 1844 Presidential Election Main Issue: Westward Expansion James K. Polk Henry Clay Whig Democrat PRO-EXPANSION ANTI-EXPANSION Political Cartoon POLK WINS Manifest Destiny John Gast, American Progress, 1872 Oregon Treaty 54°40’ (or fight) 49° (Britain Calls Bluff) Map by Kmusser 1846 U.S. compromises with Britain on Oregon border Oregon Almost There... Treaty Louisiana Purchase Texas Annexation The Mexican War WAR!!! Occupation of Mexico City BIG WIN Painting by Carl Nebel Mexican Cession 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ANTEBELLUM AMERICA Sectionalism and Reform ANTEBELLUM “Before the [Civil] War” 1820 - 1860 Missouri Compromise Civil War SECTIONALISM NORTH SOUTH WEST Economy Industry Agriculture Developing Agricultural Political Leaders Daniel Webster John C. Calhoun Henry Clay Political Issues Slavery (Anti) Tariff (Pro) Slavery (Pro) Tariff (Anti) Economic Development ANTEBELLUM REFORM Movement Key Figures Second Great Awakening ______________ William Lloyd Information Religious Revival Baptists / Methodists Abolitionism Garrison Anti-Slavery Temperance ______________ Anti-Alcohol Women’s Rights Elizabeth Cady Stanton Women should vote ABOLITIONISM William Lloyd Garrison – American Anti-Slavery Society –The Liberator (1831-1865) – Boston, MA, Newspaper NOTE: Abolition was a radical movement – especially in its early years. REFORM MOVEMENTS Strongest HERE Weakest HERE 1. Protective tariffs 2. Funding for transportation 3. Immigrants to supply labor force The harder the North pushed… 1. Slaves to supply labor force 2. Protective tariffs- helped the North at the Souths expense 3. The North benefited more from Transportation improvements The harder the South pushed back.