Forms of Business Ownership Business 40 Week 4 Carole K. Meagher 9 February, 2005 Agenda Roll call, introductions, project ideas DVD Article analysis Before you leave tonight… I need a roster with your group and project idea Week 4 Lead-in “Joe to Go” Cluster into your groups Think about your own project while watching this DVD Best practices/Good ideas you’ll borrow? Lessons learned you’ll watch out for? Starting your own business Yes, decide what type you want to be and why… Sole proprietorship – just get started! Partnership – pair up with a friend Corporation - function separate from owners Sole Proprietorship Advantages Ease of start/end Be your own boss Disadvantages Unlimited liability Limited financial resources Retain profit Difficulty in managment Time commitment Few fringe benefits Limited growth No special taxes Limited life span Pride of ownership Leave legacy Types of Partnerships General Limited Master Limited Limited Liability Partnership Advantages More financial resources Shared mgmt. Longer survival No Special Taxes Disadvantages Unlimited liability Division of profits Disagreements among partners Difficult to terminate Types of Corporations Regular ‘C’ S Corporation Limited Liability Companies Corporations Private- Not Traded on Any Stock Exchange Public- Shares Are Traded on 1 or More Stock Exchanges Non-Profit- Performs Public Service, Has Special Tax Considerations To Encourage Formation Corporation Advantages More money for investment Limited liability Separation of ownership/mgmt. Ease of ownership change Perpetual life Size Disadvantages Initial cost Paperwork Two tax returns Termination difficult Stockholder & Board Conflict Double taxation How Owners Affect Management S Corporations No more than 75 shareholders <25% of income can be passive Individual or Estates Slower-growing companies U.S. citizens or residents Benefits change with new tax rules 1 class of stock Limited Liability Companies Advantages Limited Liability Tax Choice Flexible Ownership Rules Flexible Profit & Loss Distribution Operating Flexibility Disadvantages No Stock Limited Life Span Fewer Incentives Taxes Paperwork Why Mergers Don’t Work Companies Overpay to Acquire Another Firm Acquiring Company Overestimates Cost Savings and Synergies After Merger, Managers Disagree About Integrating Operations After Merger, Cost Cutting Obsession Hurts Business Costing Top Employees & Customers GM’s Ownership In: Source: USA TODAY Types of Mergers Horizontal Vertical Conglomerate Leveraged Buyout Individual + Loan = Purchase of Company Purchase Loan Company = Collateral Franchise System Franchise Agreement Franchisor Franchisee Franchise Contract Franchisor, Inc. Branded Product/Service Performance Monitoring $$$$$ Franchisee Franchisor Assigns Territory May Provide Financial Aid/Advice Offers Merchandise/ Supplies at Competitive Price Provides Training/Support Business Expansion Using O.P.M. Franchisee Pays Up-Front Costs Makes Monthly Payment to Franchisor Runs Business by Franchisor’s Rules/Procedures Buys Materials from Franchisor/ Approved Supplier Fastest Growing Franchises (2002) Company Since Type # Stores Curves 1995 Women’s Only Fitness 3,778 Subway 1974 Submarine Sandwich 14,800 7-Eleven 1964 24-Hr. Convenience 3,761 Taco Bell 1964 Mexican Fast Food 5,417 Jani-King 1974 Commercial Cleaning 7,843 Source: Entrepreneur, 2003 Franchises + Advantages + Management & marketing assistance + Personal ownership + Recognized name + Financial advice & assistance + Lower failure rate - Disadvantages - High start-up costs Shared Profit Management regulation Coattail effects Restrictions on selling Fraudulent franchisors Cost of Fast-Food Franchise How to Avoid a Franchise Lemon 1) Research officers & their business experience 2) Get summary of any bankruptcy & litigation 3) Estimate all costs to set up franchise 4) Review franchise contract & three most recent financial statements Benefits of a Home-Based Franchise . Flexible work hours Quality lifestyle Doing the work of your choice Opportunity to expand using technology Self-motivation Franchising & E-Commerce Technology- Faster Customer Service Access to International Markets Cooperatives Farm Cooperative Owned & Controlled by People Who Use It Pool of Resources Economic Power Count off by 3s… 1. Why did Demos decide to start White Wave? What did he think he could do differently/better? 2. Why did Engles want to acquire White Wave? In other words, why was WW growing and Dean foods not growing? 3. Why did Engles keep Demos and his team around? Couldn’t he just run the operation with his own people? Break… Small Business Revival Shift to Services CAD/CAM Lessening Advantages of Big Manufacturing Maturation of Baby Boomers More Women in Workforce 1970 1980 1990 2000 Entrepreneurship Definition Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs Intrapreneur Micropreneur vs. Home-Based Corporation Entrepreneur Small Business- Advantages Personalized Service/ Personal Contact Flexibility Lower Costs Innovation Opportunities Small Business-Disadvantages - Limited Experience - Long Hours - Insufficient Capital - High Failure Rate Why People Start Their Own Businesses Live Where/How I Like Like The Challenge Build For Family Control My Life Use My Abilities 0 Source: BFIB/VISA Card Primer 10 20 30 40 50 60 Reasons Women Leave Jobs in Big Companies to Start Business e ec og ni tio n Le ss Po Pa rt lit ne ic s rs /C ol le ag In ue flu s en ce St ra te gy M or e M on ey R is kTa ki ng Source: FSB, March 2001 R Ti m ily Fa m M or e B et te rB en ef its 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Self- Perception of Small Business Owners Mavericks Artists Rainmakers Heroes Managers 0% Source: USA Today, 5/20/03 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Who Starts New Businesses? AGE AT START-UP 18 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 - 54 55+ 8% 71% 13% 6% 2% Entrepreneurial Attributes A. Self-Directed & SelfDisciplined B. Self-Nurturing C. Action-Oriented D. Highly Energetic E. Tolerant of Uncertainty Hours per Week Entrepreneurs Worked 1st Year 1 - 39 hours 8% 40 - 49 hours 15% 50 - 59 hours 23% 60 - 69 hours 28% 70 - 79 hours 13% 80 + hours 12% Reasons for Growth of Home-Based Businesses Technology Downsizing Attitudes Tax Advantages Most Common Types of Home-Based Businesses Sales & Distribution 10% Arts/Design Creative 13% Personal Svcs. 14% Source: Independent Insurance Agents of America Financial & Real Estate 5% Bldg. Trades 31% Bus. Services 27% Home Office Owners Challenges New Customers Time Management Work vs. Family City Ordinances Risk Focus Find Opportunity Results vs. Routine Profit vs. Paycheck New Ideas Long Term vs. Short Term Government Efforts Immigration Act of 1990Investor Visa Enterprise Zones Incubators What is Small Business? Independent Not Dominant < 500 Employees U.S. Small Businesses 20 Million Full/Part-Time Businesses 75% of New Jobs 45% of Gross Domestic Product Jobs 80% of Americans = 1st Job in Small Business 75% of New Jobs = Small Business Women-Owned Growing Rapidly Small Business Success Learn from Others Get Experience Take Over Successful Firm Successful Business Management Requirements Business Plan Adequate Funding Lenders/Investors “Angels” Venture Capitalists Professional Advice/Help Know Your Customer Manage Human Resources Keep Good Records Small Business Strategies Examine Marketing & ID Areas for Growth Profile Best Customers & Market to Similar Prospects Invest in Sales Training & Technology Refresh Business Perspective With Outside Views Streamline Business & Eliminate Waste Saving A Business In Trouble React/Not Overreact Understand Financial Situation Find Professional Help Develop “Recovery Plan” Be Visible Confident Leader Remind Employees of Stake in Business Don’t Get Stung By Killer “Bankruptcy” Capital Sources of Successful Entrepreneurs By Company Age 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% SOURCE: FSB, March 2001 Venture Capital Family Bank Loan < 3 Years 6+ Years Credit Cards Personal Funds Reasons for a Banker To Say “No” $ I don’t know $ Your numbers don’t enough about support the loan request. you or your business. $ Your collateral is lacking. $ You haven’t clearly stated $ Your business does not support the loan why you need the on its own merits. money. Small Business Collaborators Small Business Administration (SBA) Microloan program SBICs SBDCs Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE) Active Corps of Executives (ACE) Ways to Improve Banking Relationships 1) Provide Bank With Business Plan, Brochures, Business Cards, etc. 2) Describe Business, Financial Situation, Plans 3) Ask About Scope of Bank Services 4) Express Interest In Banker’s Background- Family, Hobbies, etc. 5) Follow Up With Phone Calls, Visits Source: St. Louis Business Monthly, August 2002 Small Business & International Prospects Positives 1. World Market 2. Absorb Excess Inventory 3. Soften U.S. Downturns 4. Extend Product Life Negatives 1. Financing Difficult 2. How to Get Started? 3. Lack of Cultural Understanding 4. Paperwork International Small Business Advantages Deal With Individuals Faster Shipping Variety of Suppliers Professional Service Information Dept. of Commercewww.bxa.doc.gov SBA- Internationalwww.sba.gov/hotlist/int ernat.html Week 5 Lead-in Production and Distribution Chapters 9, 15 Weekly assignment… the usual If you are not yet on a group, get into one!