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Introduction to PSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY The scientific study of behavior and the mental process. What are the characteristics of an excellent Psychologist? H ow do psychologists think? “…I feel my self a naturalist and a phy sician both; and that I am equally interested in diseases and people; perhaps too, that I am equally , if inadequately , a theorist and a dramatist, am equally drawn to the scientific and the romantic and continually see both in the human condition…” Oliver Sacks The central question addressed in this Psychology class is “how do psychologists think?” Oliver Sacks, a brilliant neuroscientist, identifies a dual role played by effective psychologists: Good psychologists are both empathic counselors and objective scientists. The course objectives of this class stem from this essential question and acknowledge this complicated role. Stay Or Switch?! Stay Or Switch Intuition – The act of knowing without use of rational processes, a capacity for guessing accurately, what ‘feels’ right. Empiricism – Relying on information derived from observation or experimentation. STEP 1: Presenting the problem STEP 2: The critical question: stay or switch? STEP 3: The experiment STEP 4: Debriefing What is left? - Expectations - Fact or Fiction Quiz? “We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then is a not an act but a habit” -AristotleYOU ALL CAN EXPIRIENCE EXCELENCE. Neuroplasticity: changing the brain through practice BILL GATES OUTLIERS by Malcolm Gladwell Mental Toughness Training Mental Toughness Training Marshmallow Test Lets look at memory WHAT DO YOU SEE? It depends on your perspective • PYSCHOANALYTIC/PSYCHODYNAMIC • BEHAVIORISM • HUMANISM • COGNITIVE • SOCIOCULTURAL • BIOLOGICAL/NEUROSCIENTIFIC • EVOLUTIONARY The Biopsychosocial Approach Human Behavior Do we need it? Hindsight Bias • The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew it all along. THE WORST COACHING CALL IN NFL HISTORY?!?! Overconfidence We tend to think we know more than we do. • 82% of U.S. drivers consider themselves to be in the top 30% of their group in terms of safety. • 81% of new business owners felt they had an excellent chance of their businesses succeeding. When asked about the success of their peers, the answer was only 39%. (Now that's overconfidence!!!) Quarter Flip Which of the three patterns is most likely? 1. HHHTTT 2. HTTHTH 3. HHHHHH WHY? Scientific attitude: curiosity, skepticism, humility. CRITICAL THINKING. “To believe with certainty, we must begin by doubting.” –Polish proverb FINDING MEANING IN THE METHOD Five steps of the scientific Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Developing a Hypothesis Performing a controlled test Gathering objective data Analyzing the results Publishing, criticizing and replicating the results HAWTHORNE EFFECT (Another confounding variable) • SIMPLY KNOWING YOU ARE IN AN EXPERIMENT MAY CAUSE A CHANGE IN BOTH CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUP. Whether the lights were brighter or dimmer, production went up in the Hawthorne electric plant. How Do Psychologists Observe and Describe Behavior? Descriptive/Correlational Methods of Research (Note, this is not an experiment) 1.Case Studies 2.Naturalistic Observation 3.Surveys • Examines one individual in depth in hopes of revealing things true of all of us. What does this mean? The famous case of Phineas Gage survived an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior. Careful, usually prolonged observation of behavior in its natural setting, without direct intervention. • Example: Humans laugh 30 times more often in social situations than is solitary situations. (Have you noticed how seldom you laugh when you’re alone?) • IF you were to conduct a naturalistic observation in the dining hall, what kinds of things would you notice? • Use of Questionnaire to gather information about specific aspects of participants’ behavior. attitudes, opinions and beliefs Sampling 1. Identify the population you want to study. 2. The sample must be representative of the population you want to study. 3. GET A RANDOM SAMPLE. TODAY ANOUNCEMENTS: • I ALWAYS, accept late work • Notes: Can we do them differently? • RADIO LAB! 1. QUIZ (6Q’s – 4 mins total) 2. Correlation 3. Understanding Experimentation 1. Gotta do them, to get ‘em Correlation Method Measure of the extent to which two variables change together NATURALLY. (How well either variable predicts the other) DOES NOT SHOW CAUSATION As the population sleeps longer, fewer car accidents occur. Does more sleep cause fewer accidents, or fewer accidents cause more sleep? Correlation and Causation (1) LOW SELF-ESTEEM Could Cause DEPRESSION Or (2) DEPRESSION Could Cause LOW SELF-ESTEEM Or (3) Distressing events or biological predispositions Could Cause DEPRESSION LOW SELF-ESTEEM Positive or Negative Correlation? (SCATTER PLOT) Positive Correlation Studying and grades hopefully has a positive correlation. The variables go in the SAME direction. Negative Correlation Heroin use and grades probably has a negative correlation. The variables go in opposite directions. NO Correlation A QUESTION LIKE THIS WILL VERY WELL BE ON THE AP EXAM Correlation Coefficient • A number that measures the strength of a relationship. • Range is from -1 to +1 • The relationship gets weaker the closer you get to zero. Which is a stronger correlation? • -.13 or +.38 • -.72 or +.59 • -.91 or +.04 Positive or Negative Correlation 1. The more children and youth used various media, the less happy they were with their lives. 2. The less sexual content teens saw on TV, the less likely they were to have sex. 3. The longer children were breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievement. 4. The more income rose among a sample of poor families, the fewer psychiatric symptoms their children experienced. WHAT IS IT ABOUT AN EXPERIMENT THAT ALLOWS US TO ISOLATE CAUSE AND EFFECT? • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE • The experimental factor that is manipulated • It is the variable whose effect is being studied • DEPENDENT VARIABLE • The variable that may change in response to the manipulations of the independent variable. SCREWING AROUND IN PSYCHOLOGY!! CONFOUNDING VARIABLE • The object of an experiment is to prove A causes B • CV = Anything that could cause change in B that is not A. If I was trying to prove that smoking causes heart issues, what are some confounding variables? Experimenter Bias (Another confounding variable) • Influencing the experiment unconsciously. DOUBLE BLIND Placebo Effect (Another confounding variable) Change not due to the Independent Variable but is due to the patient's belief in that they received the Independent Variable. Social scientists study the backgrounds of children who have been assigned to foster care. They discover that the majority of children who receive foster care have experienced physical punishment methods in their prior homes that would be severe enough to qualify as abuse. Conclusion derived from correlational study or experiment? Why? MATH OF CHOICE CHEMISTRY ……… Algebra PHYSICS …………… Calculus & PSYCHOLOGY……. Statistics Descriptive Statistics Numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. (Central tendency and measures of variation) The Elusive “Average” Measures of central tendency: Mean – arithmetic average = x/n Median – the halfway point Mode – the most common answer The Elusive “Average” Measures of central tendency: Variability Range – Overall difference between the highest and lowest scores. Variance – Average difference from the mean. Standard Deviation can tell you how similar the data is (Higher the SD, the less similar and vice versa.) DISTRIBUTION: The Normal Curve WHY STANDARD DEVIATION MATTERS WHY STANDARD DEVIATION MATTERS No antidepressant Drug 1 Drug 2 Drug 3 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS Numerical data that allows one to generalize (to infer) a truth about a population. Better to do when: • You have a representative Sample • Data is less variable (Low SD) • You have a lot of cases. STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE How likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. • How two groups’ means are different. • If you graph two groups… and they overlap… there is no significance. • IF THEY DON’T! THEN…. P Value (Measurement of Statistical Significance) P value -- The probability that a particular set of data was gained by chance alone. Statistical Significance – Any P value of less than .05 (5% by chance, 95% by IV) In Sum… ■ Central tendency – median, mean, mode ■ Median – falls exactly in the center of a group of scores ■ Mean – average of the scores ■ Mode – most frequent score in a distribution ■ Variability – how much the scores vary from each other and the mean. ■ The Standard Deviation is an index of the AMOUNT of variability in a set of data ■ When variability is great, SD will be too. ■ Correlation ■ How closely related (not different) data is Free Write Is deceptive research justifiable? Why or Why Not Ethics • APA’s Ethical guidelines 3 principles and 6 norms • Institutional Review Boards (IRB)review and approves all research • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)approves all research using animals • Controversy about deceptive research • Controversy about animal research • Genie: Secrets of the Wild Child case study Ethics 1) Obtain potential participant’s informed consent 2) Protect them from physical or emotional harm and discomfort 3) Keep information about individual participants confidential 4) Fully debrief people Ethics “… I feel myself a naturalist and a physician both; and that I am equally interested in diseases and people; perhaps too, that I am equally, if inadequately, a theorist and a dramatist, am equally drawn to the scientific and the romantic and continually see both in the human condition…” – Oliver Sacks (Neuroscientist) Extreme Unethical Experiments Milgram Watson Zimbardo