Fashion Marketing

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Chapter 7
Designing Fashion
Designing
Fashion
The Design Process
Making Fashion
1
Designing Fashion
Chapter Objectives
Describe the three divisions of apparel manufacturers
Explain the roles and types of fashion designers.
Identify the elements and principles of design used to
create fashion.
Identify the steps in the garment production process.
Compare haute-couture production and prêt-à-porter
production.
Explain how women’s and men’s apparel are sized.
2
Designing Fashion
Apparel Company
Divisions
The three divisions of apparel manufacturers are:
Design
Division:
Production
Division:
Sales
Division:
Buy Fabrics/
Design a line
Produce the
garments
Sell completed
apparel to stores
All divisions work together to make it happen!
Section 7.1
3
Designing Fashion
The Role of the Fashion
Designer
 Designers must anticipate what
their target
market will buy
 Select the appropriate fabrics that
will sell.
 Produce finished garments or accessories at prices that
customers will pay.
 Create original designs and choose appropriate fabrics
 Supervise assistants who carry out their ideas.
 May also spend time on administrative tasks.
Section 7.1
4
The Role of the Fashion Designer
Types of Designers
Self-Employed
Designers
Section 7.1
Design-House
Designers
Designers for
Manufacturers
5
Designing Fashion
Elements of Design
The elements of design are:
Color
Silhouette
Line
Fabric
Texture
Section 7.1
The elements must be chosen
according to principles.
The elements must be combined
effectively to achieve harmony.
6
Designing Fashion
Elements of Design
Research has shown that
customers respond to
color before any other
design element.
color a visual
characteristic, representing
hue and tone, that is one
of the most important
elements of fashion design
Texture is determined by
fibers, yarns, and the
method of construction.
texture a characteristic of
the surface of a material in
terms of how it feels and
looks
Section 7.1
7
Designing Fashion
Elements of Design
The next considerations
are the silhouette and
line.
silhouette the overall
form, or outline of a
garment
line a distinct elongated
mark that directs the eye
movement when viewing
the garment
Section 7.1
8
Designing Fashion
Principles of Design
Besides using the basic
elements of design, a
skilled designer also
applies the principles of
design.
Section 7.1
principles of design
the standards for
creating good design
that include proportion,
balance, rhythm,
emphasis, and harmony
9
Principles of Design
Proportion The relationship of all the spaces of the garment.
Balance
The relationship (either symmetrical or asymmetrical)
of one side of the garment to the other.
Rhythm
A sense of movement through the repetition of lines,
shapes, and colors.
Emphasis
The center of interest, or the focal point, of the
garment.
Harmony
Harmony is achieved when the designer has applied
all of the principles of design to a fashion design.
Section 7.1
10
Design Process and Schedules:
Marketing period is 6 months before customers will purchase…
Designers have it ready 2-3 months before that!
Steps of the Design Process
Section 7.1
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Basic
Decisions
Design
Concept and
Samples
Sales
Research
Analysis
Step 4
Step 5
Step 6
Design
Presentation
Purchase
Orders
Production
11
Designing Fashion
Design Process and
Schedules
Designers use computeraided design (CAD)
systems as a tool, like a
paintbrush, to produce
creations.
computer-aided design
(CAD) computer
programs that perform
many design functions
to create design
CAD allows for quick
production through
technology and machines.
Section 7.1
12
Designing Fashion
The Garment
Production Process
The fashion industry uses
computer-aided design
(CAD) systems to complete
patternmaking.
patternmaking the
process of transforming
the design into the
appropriate pieces needed
to produce an apparel item
Computer systems
also facilitate grading.
grading the technical
process of increasing or
decreasing the sizes of a
pattern to correspond to a
garment size
Section 7.2
13
Designing Fashion
The Garment
Production Process
Costing is the process of
calculating the production costs
of a garment in order to set a
wholesale price.
wholesale the price
that retail buyers pay for
goods they purchase
from manufacturers
The wholesale price includes:
Cost of labor
Materials
Markup
Section 7.2
14
Designing Fashion
The Garment
Production Process
Garments are massproduced and cut and sewn
in an assembly-line manner.
Many manufacturers use
computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM).
Section 7.2
computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM) a
system that automatically
moves the garment parts
through each phase of the
cutting-and-sewing
process
15
Designing Fashion
The Garment
Production Process
After a garment is constructed:
 An inspector checks it for flaws.
 Hangtags attached to garments provide
information such as fabric content and care
instructions.
 Labels attached to garments identify the name
of the manufacturer or the line of clothing.
Section 7.2
16
Designing Fashion
The Garment
Production Process
Haute couture is the French term
for high-fashion custom made
designer clothing.
prêt-á-porter French
term for designer
ready-to-wear clothing
Prêt-á porter is less expensive
than haute couture, but it
generates more income for
couture fashion houses.
Section 7.2
17
Designing Fashion
Size Classifications
The different groupings of a
sizing system in retail
stores are known as size
classifications.
Standard
measurements vary
from one manufacturer
to another…
Section 7.2
sizing system a set
of sizes based on
common assumptions
and methods of
development
Vanity sizing
gives the customer
the illusion of being
able to fit into a
smaller size.
18
Women’s Size System- based on shape of figure
Misses
Women’s/
Large
Juniors
Petites
Styling
Conservative
adaptation of
previous
season’s styles
Same as misses
with some junior
styles
Young, trendy,
Same as
figure-conscious misses’
styles
styles
Age
25 and up
18 and up
15 to 25
25 and up
Size
Range
Even sizes 0-20
Even sizes
16-26W, 16-26WP
or higher
Odd sizes 3-15
Petite 0-14
Figure
Fully developed;
over 5’4”
Larger
proportioned
Not fully
developed
Fully
developed;
under 5’4”
Section 7.2
19
Designing Fashion
Size ClassificationsMen’s sizing

More standard than women’s sizing.

Men’s slacks, dress shirts, and tailored apparel
are sized with a dual-sizing system,
or a combination of two measurements.
 Example: pants – 30/32 (waist/length)
dress shirts – 16, 34/35 (neck/sleeve length)

Most men’s sports shirts and sweaters are offered in small,
medium, large, and extra large.
Section 7.2
20
Designing Fashion
7.1
1. What are some roles of the fashion designer?
Anticipate what target market will buy, produce finished products at prices
customers will pay, create original designs, select appropriate fabrics, supervise
2. What are the five basic principles of design?
Proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and harmony
3. What are the three divisions of apparel
manufacturing and what do they accomplish?
Design Division: Buy fabrics, design a line
Production Division: Produce the garments
Sales Division: Sell completed apparel to stores
Section 7.1
21
Designing Fashion
7.2
What are the six key steps in the apparel
4.
production process?
Basic decisions -> Design concepts and samples -> Sales research analysis ->
Design presentation -> Purchase orders -> Production
5. What are the production differences between
haute couture and prêt-á-porter?
Haute-couture garments are more precise, custom-made by hand (hand sewn)
to fit the customer. Pret-a-Porter garments require very little hand sewing and
are mass produced in ready-to-wear styles and sizes (not custom)
6. What is the difference between women’s
and men’s sizing? Women’s clothing is based on shape of the
figure and includes numbered sizes. Men’s sizing is more standard and uses a
dual sizing system based on measurement numbers.
Section 7.2
22
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