Cell Division: All cells come from ________________________________ (Cell Theory). Cell division in the process by which cells produce ________ cells. Cell division differs between prokaryotes (________________) and eukaryotes (______________________ ____________________________________). Cells grow in _______________ NOT in size. How often do cells divide? Some cells must be repaired often such as cells lining the intestines, white blood cells, _________ cells with a short lifespan. Other cells DO NOT divide at all after birth such as muscle, nerve cells, brain cells, female ______ cells. Reasons for Cell Division: The plans for making cells are coded in their _________. DNA, deoxyribose nucleic acid, is a long thin molecule that stores ___________________________. DNA is organized into molecules called ____________________. Chromosomes are made of proteins and a long, single tightly coiled DNA molecule visible only when ____________________________. When a cell is NOT dividing the chromosome (DNA) is less visible and is called __________________. __________________ hold duplicated chromosomes together before they are separated during cell division. DNA makes copies of itself before cell division, each half of the chromosome is called a _________ ______________. Each sister chromatid contains _____________ genetic information. Human somatic (_______ cells) have ____ __________ of chromosomes or ______ chromosomes (_________ or 2n number) The 2 chromatids of a chromosome pair are called _________________ (have genes for the same trait at the same location). Human sex cells ( ____________) sperm & egg have one set of 23 chromosomes (_____________ or n number) Asexual Reproduction: Reproduction of cells involving only ______ parent. The organism will make a ________ of itself. This produces _____________ offspring. Types: Binary Fission: _____________, cyanobacteria, and most single-celled organisms reproduce by _____________________. Vegetative Propagation: Form of asexual reproduction in ___________. Part of the plant detaches from the parent plant to form its own _________________. Genetically ___________ to the parent plant. Budding: Form of asexual reproduction in the plant in which a new organism develops from an _____________ of the parent. Genetically ________________ to the parent. Sexual Reproduction: A type of reproduction that involves _______ parents. Produces offspring that are ______________________________. Happens in the _______ cells ( _______________________) which are called ________ The cell cycle consists of three stages: Mitosis = Cytokinesis = Interphase: G1: The _______________ stage of the cell cycle. Called the _____________ stage because the cell isn’t dividing. Consists of 3 stages: S phase: G2: MITOSIS Division of the ____________ occurs first (____________) Mitosis is ____________ reproduction. _______ parent offspring are genetically _______________ Mitosis consists of four stages: Prophase ____________ phase of mitosis Chromatin condenses into _________________ consisting of two ____________ chromatids. ______________ move apart (not found in plant cells) _________________________ form and attach from centrioles to centromeres. Metaphase shortest phase of mitosis Chromosomes line up across the ___________ (the center of the cell – the ___________ of the cell) The __________________ of each chromosome attaches to spindle fibers. Anaphase Sister chromatids ______________ and move ____________. After separation, chromatids are now considered ____________________. During this phase, the cell contains _______ the normal number of chromosomes. Cells begin to _____________. At the end of anaphase, there are _________ number of chromosomes at the poles. Telophase __________________________ reappears. _________________ reforms. Chromosomes uncoil and appear as ___________ again. In the end, two genetically identical _________ are present. _________________ begins. Cytokinesis Division of the _______________ of the cell and its organelles into two new ________________ cells. Differs between animal and plant cells: Animal cells: __________________________ forms to make the circular shape. Plant cells: _________________ forms where new cell wall will be to make the rectangular shape. CANCER Cancer is ______________________________. Cells dividing uncontrollably. Mitosis must be controlled or else it will grow without limit (____________).