Mitosis Meiosis notes

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Genetics Part 1
Heredity
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Definition:
A.
B.
C.
1.
Chromosome
Definition:
A.
Humans have 
B.
C.
D.
E. There are two types of chromosomes:
1.
2.
Karyotype:
Female=
Male =
Genes
Definition:
A.
1.
2.
3
4.
Vocabulary terms
Diploid:
a.
b.
Haploid:
a.
b.
c.
Reproduction of Cells:
Reproduction of cells occurs in one of 2 ways
•Mitosis-
•Meiosis-
a.
The Cell Cycle:
There are five phases that make up the cell cycle
1. G-1 Phase: The growth phase of the cell. The cells grows
rapidly and carries out it’s normal functions. This phase
occupies most of the cells time.
2. S Phase: DNA replication (copying) occurs, all chromosomes
have been copied, so there are double the number.
3. G-2 Phase: Preparations made for cell division (organelles
are duplicated).
4. M-Phase: Mitosis occurs, the nucleus divides in two.
5. C-Phase: “Cytokenisis”….the cell splits into
two individual, identical cells.
An Overview of the Process of
Mitosis
The reproduction of regular
body cells (somatic cells). This
occurs in 98% of the cells that
make us and virtually all living
organisms.
1.
2.
3.
Stages of Mitosis
Mitosis is divided into 4 Stages.
1.
Prophase:
2.
Metaphase:
3.
Anaphase:
4.
Telophase:
5.
6.
The chromosome, as we recognize it, is made up of two sister
chromatids held together by a button called a centromere.
A.
B.
Meiosis
Definition:
1. Has two phases:
2.
3.
4.
Gametes: Sperm and eggs
Definition:
a.
b.
Overview of Meiosis: Production of egg
or sperm cells (reproductive cells)
These four cells are called _____________,
And examples of them are ___________ and
______________.
Because of ____________ and ___________
_____________________, these four daughter
Even more Variation:
Crossover:

Independent Assortment: When the homologous pairs of
chromosomes separate, there is no predictable pattern of which will end up
in a given egg or a given sperm cell.
Mistakes in Meiosis
Trisomy:
Definition:
A.
B.
Monosomy:
Definition:
A.
B.
Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
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