Elements and Principles of Design

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Elements and Principles of Design

What are they?

Elements of Design are the parts

- They structure and carry the work

Principles of Design

- They affect the content and the message

Elements of Design: Visual tools the artist uses

• Space * Line *Shape • Form *Color * Value • Texture

Line

• Is strokes that show motion and connecting two points. • The artist Paul Klee said “ LINE WAS A DOT TAKING A WALK.” • It has five characteristics: Length, width, curvature, depth, and texture

Shape

• • • • Is an ENCLOSED LINE.

It has HEIGHT and WIDTH and is usually considered flat or 2- D There are four basic shapes: CIRCLE, SQUARE, RECTANGLE, and TRIANGLE

Two types of Shape

Geometric: Hard-Edged shapes such as squares, rectangles, circles and triangles.

Organic: A shape with smooth, curved lines, shapes and edges that resembles something from nature or life.

• Is TWO OR MORE SHAPES COMBINED.

• It has height, width and DEPTH.

• It is considered 3-D and usually you can walk around and/ or through it.

• There are four forms…. SPHERE, CONE, CYLINDER, and CUBE (which is man-made)

Form

Space

• • • Is the AREA the artist works on.

It can be paper, clay, canvas, walls, etc.

It has two characteristics: – POSITIVE… the object (the tree) – NEGATIVE… the voided area surrounding the object.(the white)

Color

• common name of a hue found in or related to the color spectrum • • HUE is another word for color.

There are: – 3 PRIMARY colors – 3 SECONDARY colors – 6 INTERMEDIATE colors * All placed evenly around the color wheel

Value

• • • • IS THE LIGHTNESS AND DARKNESS OF A COLOR OR NEUTRAL GREY.

White added to a color is a TINT Gray added to a color is a TONE Black added to a color is a SHADE.

TEXTURE

• THE FEEL OF A SURFACE.

– There are two kinds: • ACTUAL OR REAL… usually made by nature • IMPLIED OR FAKE… Usually created by man.

Principles of Design Directions for the Elements

• Balance * Movement • Repetition * Emphasis • Contrast • Rythm * Unity

Balance

• • • • EQUILIBRIUM… the feeling of being comfortable in artwork. Where the elements are placed in the picture in a way so they have equal weight There are two kinds… SYMMETRICAL or formal balance which is objects centered ASYMMETRICAL or informal balance which is more objects on one side or off centered .

Movement

• THE PATH OUR EYES FOLLOW IN ART WORK.

• Usually it brings the viewer in, around, and through the piece.

• Also known as Rhythm

Repetition

• IS REPEATED ELEMENTS… which is varied in size, shape or color • Also known as pattern.

• DRAWING ATTENTION TO THE MAIN OBJECT. All elements; like line, color, and shapes, direct your eyes to the main point.

Emphasis

Contrast

• • • • • THE OPPOSITE OR VARIED ELEMENTS that make an artwork interesting. Such as; color thick or thin lines, large or small shapes rough or smooth texture etc.

• ONENESS… makes all the elements and principles' work together to form a piece of art.

• Also called harmony

Unity

Rhythm

Lines, shapes, or patterns that create a feeling of movement

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