The South and West Transformed 1865 - 1900

Chapter 6
 The
South Remained largely agricultural
and poor after the Civil War
 Farming became more diversified; grain,
tobacco, and fruit crops (small farms
replaced large plantations)
 To
combat economic isolation,
southerners lobbied the federal
government for more rail building
 Sustained
economic development
requires resources, labor, and capital
investment. (industry is a three legged
 Public education was limited in the South,
there were few technical and
engineering schools
 Cash
Crop – products grown not for
there use but sold for cash
 Cotton remained a staple crop after the
Civil War and during the war many
European textile factories found other
sources (depressed prices)
 Farmers’ Alliance
– farmers in Texas in
the 1870 began to organize as a group for
lower prices for supplies (lobbied for
lower transport cost and loan rates)
 Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and
amendments gave many gains that were
stifled by the courts.
 Voting, Education, businesses,
purchasing power, farmer groups
 (Federal Laws)
 Ku
Klux Klan used terror and violence
 Civil Rights Act of 1875 – congress
guaranteed black patrons the right to
ride trains and use public facilities
 Supreme Court ruled that these were
local issues
 The
federal government forced Native
Americans west past the Mississippi to
lands they were to have FOREVER
during the 1840’s.
 Westward
expansion would soon
dissolved this promise “Great American
 Native Americans had many diverse
cultures influenced by geography
Pacific North west – fish and forests
South hunter-gatherers
South West – arid lands Pueblo people
Plains – buffalo
 (Natives saw themselves as part of nature)
 President
Jackson moved the Cherokees
off their land in Georgia and onto the
Great Plains (Whites were discouraged
form contact with the Native Americans)
 Gold and Silver
 Reservations – specific
areas set aside by the
government for Indians’
 Sand
Creek Massacre – 1884 incident in
which Colorado militia killed a camp of
Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians (video)
 Expansion west by whites time again
broke promises made by the federal
government, the United States Peace
Commission concluded that lasting
peace would only come when the Indians
settled on farms and “became whites.”
 Red
River War – U.S. failed to fulfill the
“Treaty of Medicine Lodge,” and keep
white buffalo hunters off Indian land
 Sitting
Bull – famed fighter, trained holy
man, first ever chief of the seven bands
 Battle of the Little Big Horn – led by
Crazy Horse, Custer and all of his men
were killed
 Chief
Joseph – led a group of refugees to
Canada 1,300 miles
 Wounded
Knee – sealed the Indians
demise after being weakened more than
100 men women and children were killed
 Assimilated
– to be absorbed into the
main culture of a society
 Dawes General Allotment Act – replaced
the reservation system with an allotment
system. Each family was given 160-acre