Texas and War with Mexico Chapter 9 Section 2 Objectives • Explain how Texas won independence from Mexico. • Analyze the goals of President Polk. • Trace the causes and outcome of the Mexican-American War. Texas -Mexico sought to develop Texas by inviting settlers. -They offered inexpensive land on three conditions. Settlers had to • Accept Mexican citizenship (learn Spanish) • Worship in the Catholic Church • No Slaves American settlers arrived, but ignored the Mexican government. • Led by Stephen F. Austin, 30,000 Anglo-Texans outnumbered the Tejanos six-to-one by 1835. • Many brought slaves and ignored the Church. • In 1834, Antonio López de Santa Anna seized power in Mexico City, seeking greater centralized control. But Texans wanted more autonomy. Texas Revolution • In 1835, Texans declared independence for the Lone Star Republic. • Santa Anna personally led a siege of Texan forces at the Alamo in San Antonio. • After twelve days, he stormed the mission and executed any surviving defenders, including Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett. Several weeks later, Santa Anna took Goliad and again executed prisoners, in an attempt to frighten Texas into surrender. Instead, Santa Anna created a set of martyrs. “Remember the Alamo,” became the Texans’ rallying cry. Many Southerners were inspired to volunteer and joined the Texans. At the Battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna was defeated and taken prisoner. Houston later became president of the Lone Star Republic. After statehood in 1845, Houston served as governor and then as U.S. Senator from Texas. Fearing execution, Santa Anna signed a treaty expanding the Texas border to the Rio Grande and giving half of New Mexico to the Texans. • Texas became an independent republic. • The Mexican government refused to honor the treaty and demanded a return to the original border at the Nuecos River. • Fighting would persist for ten years over the disputed borderlands. Polk the Expansionist James K. Polk was elected president in 1844 on a promise to obtain both Oregon and Texas. In Congress, northern Democrats reluctantly agreed to annex Texas if all of Oregon was also added. Britain did not concede all of the territory. Rather then fight, Polk made a deal to split Oregon and extend the 49th parallel border with Canada to the Pacific Ocean. Northerners felt betrayed. • President Polk claimed The United States annexed Texas in 1845, leading to war with Mexico. all land as far as the Rio Grande, tripling the previous size of Texas. • General Zachary Taylor was sent to occupy these border lands. • Mexico objected to the granting of statehood to Texas and saw statehood as an invasion of Mexican territory. Mexican War • When Mexican patrols killed American soldiers, Congress declared war on Mexico. • Southern Democrats favored war, while Northern Whigs felt that Polk deliberately provoked Mexico. • The war was popular in the United States. • Whigs dropped their opposition, fearing they would be labeled disloyal as the Federalists were for opposing the War of 1812. The United States easily defeated Mexico. The U.S. advantages included greater wealth and a better-equipped military. General Winfield Scott led an overwhelming campaign from Veracruz to Chapultepec, forcing Santa Anna to abandon Mexico City and the war. After capturing the port of Veracruz, U.S. forces marched 200 miles to attack Mexico City. The army and navy combined to defeat Mexico.