Texas and War with Mexico Chapter 9 Section 2

Texas and War with Mexico
Chapter 9 Section 2
Explain how Texas won independence from
Analyze the goals of President Polk.
Trace the causes and outcome of the
Mexican-American War.
-Mexico sought to develop Texas by inviting
-They offered inexpensive land on three
conditions. Settlers had to
• Accept Mexican citizenship (learn
• Worship in the Catholic Church
• No Slaves
American settlers arrived, but ignored the
Mexican government.
• Led by Stephen F. Austin, 30,000 Anglo-Texans
outnumbered the Tejanos six-to-one by 1835.
• Many brought slaves and ignored the Church.
• In 1834, Antonio López de Santa Anna seized
power in Mexico City, seeking greater centralized
control. But Texans wanted more autonomy.
Texas Revolution
• In 1835, Texans declared
independence for the
Lone Star Republic.
• Santa Anna personally
led a siege of Texan
forces at the Alamo in
San Antonio.
• After twelve days, he
stormed the mission and
executed any surviving
defenders, including Jim
Bowie and Davy Crockett.
Several weeks later, Santa Anna took Goliad
and again executed prisoners, in an attempt
to frighten Texas into surrender.
Instead, Santa Anna created a set of martyrs.
“Remember the Alamo,” became the Texans’
rallying cry.
Many Southerners were inspired to volunteer
and joined the Texans.
At the Battle of San
Jacinto, Santa Anna was
defeated and taken
Houston later became
president of the Lone
Star Republic.
After statehood in 1845,
Houston served as
governor and then as
U.S. Senator from Texas.
Fearing execution, Santa Anna signed a treaty
expanding the Texas border to the Rio Grande
and giving half of New Mexico to the Texans.
• Texas became an independent republic.
• The Mexican government refused to honor the
treaty and demanded a return to the original
border at the Nuecos River.
• Fighting would persist for ten years over the
disputed borderlands.
Polk the Expansionist
James K. Polk was elected president
in 1844 on a promise to obtain both
Oregon and Texas.
In Congress, northern Democrats
reluctantly agreed to annex Texas if
all of Oregon was also added.
Britain did not concede all of the territory. Rather
then fight, Polk made a deal to split Oregon and
extend the 49th parallel border with Canada to the
Pacific Ocean. Northerners felt betrayed.
• President Polk claimed
The United States
annexed Texas in
1845, leading to
war with Mexico.
all land as far as the
Rio Grande, tripling the
previous size of Texas.
• General Zachary Taylor
was sent to occupy these
border lands.
• Mexico objected to the
granting of statehood to
Texas and saw statehood
as an invasion of Mexican
Mexican War
• When Mexican patrols killed
American soldiers, Congress
declared war on Mexico.
• Southern Democrats favored
war, while Northern Whigs felt
that Polk deliberately provoked
• The war was popular in the
United States.
• Whigs dropped their
opposition, fearing they would
be labeled disloyal as the
Federalists were for opposing
the War of 1812.
The United States easily defeated Mexico.
The U.S. advantages
included greater wealth and
a better-equipped military.
General Winfield Scott
led an overwhelming
campaign from Veracruz to
Chapultepec, forcing Santa
Anna to abandon Mexico
City and the war.
After capturing the port of Veracruz,
U.S. forces marched 200 miles to
attack Mexico City.
The army
and navy
to defeat
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