Study Guide 2 Unit 3 Topic: Cellular Reproduction LEQ: How do cells divide? Text book: Chapter 9, pages 243-257 VOCABULARY: sexual reproduction, meiosis, diploid, somatic cells, haploid, gametes, fertilization, conjugation, chromosomes, asexual reproduction, binary fission, mitosis, parthenogenesis, fragmentation, regeneration, Cell Cycle, Interphase (G1, G0, S, G2), Mitosis, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis, M-phase, Chromosomes, Chromatid, Centromere, Spindle Apparatus, cleavage furrow Centrioles, Cancer Main Ideas: All living things are made of cells according to the Cell Theory. Cells are small because the surface area does not increase in proportion to the volume. This causes problems with DNA’s ability to direct cell processes & cellular transport of nutrients and wastes across the cell and through the cell membrane. When cells become too large, the cell will reproduce or divide. This is asexual reproduction. One cell becomes 2 identical daughter cells via the Cell Cycle which includes Interphase and the M phase. The 2 daughter cells have the exact same # of chromosomes that the parent cell had. This process occurs with only somatic or regular body cells in response to repair & growth. What you need to be able to do/answer: Compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction in terms of number of parent cells needed, cell types, chromosome complement (2n, n), genetic diversity and processes. Explain why cells are small and need to divide. Summarize the stages of the cell cycle. Describe what happens to DNA during the S stage of interphase. Diagram the stages of the cell cycle and describe what happens in each stage. Describe the events of each stage of mitosis. Given a picture of a cell in mitosis, identify the stage it is in. Identify the stage of mitosis in which a cell spends the most time. Contrast cytokinesis in a plant cell and an animal cell. What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells?