Biomolecules Homework

Name ______________________________________
Carbohydrates include monosaccharides, ___________________________, and polysaccharides. An example
of a monosaccharide is ______________________ which has the molecular formula ____________________.
Polysaccharides are categorized as structural or ________________________________, polysaccharides. The
structural polysaccharide _____________________ composes the cell walls of plant cells and is not digestible
by humans. This tough polysaccharide is digestible by ________________________________, (animal)
because of symbiotic microbes in the gut. Another structural polysaccharide, ___________________, forms
the tough exoskeleton of insects. Storage polysaccharides in plants are ______________________________,
which can be converted to energy when the plant requires it. In animals, the storage polysaccharide is
_____________ found in muscle and liver. Polysaccharides are composed of many units of
_________________ monomers. The carbohydrate known as “blood sugar” is _________________________
while the predominant carbohydrate found in a potato is _________________.
The building blocks of proteins are ____________ ____________. They get their name from the
____________________ functional group. Most proteins have a ________________________, shape which
enables the protein to function. Amino acids are first strung into a linear ________________________ which
then folds to form the functional protein. Proteins exhibit up to 4 levels of complexity. The primary protein
structure is the sequence of amino acids. This molecule’s secondary structure is composed of ________
___________ and beta pleated _________________________. The _____________________________.
structure consists of a 3 dimensional molecule that has a function. Some proteins, but not all, have a
quaternary structure. These proteins have multiple ______________________________. An example of a
protein with a quaternary structure is ______________________________. When proteins are
__________________ed they lose function because they lose shape. . An example of a pigment protein is
_______________ while an example of a transport protein is ________________.
___________________ fats have many hydrogen atoms attached to carbons chains, while
___________________ fats have less hydrogen atoms due to double bonds between carbons. Less hydrogens
cause these lipids to be ______________________________. at room temperature. Animal fat is
____________________at room temperature. A lipid with 3 hydrocarbon chains is referred to as a
______________________________. Fats are needed to make ___________________________ hormones.
The lipid used to make these hormones is ___________________________. Lipids are also used to build
________________________ which are an important component of cell membranes, and to cushion organs
and insulate the body.
Nucleic acids include RNA and _________________. The architecture of the DNA molecule is described as a
_____________ helix and contains the 4 nucleotide monomers G, ____, _____, ______. The sugar in DNA is
___________________________ which forms the “backbone” of the molecule with phosphate groups. The
bases face internally with G bonding to _______ and T hydrogen bonding to _______. DNA is important to
cells because it carries the code for cells to make __________________________.
Identify the TYPE of biomolecule (carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or nucleic acid)