Chapter 2 Outline – Chemical Basis of Life

Test Date:
Chapter 2 Outline – Chemical Basis of Life – Part 1
I. Introduction
A. Why is it important to have a basic knowledge of chemistry when studying physiology?
B. Biochemistry: Deals directly with the processes that underline life activities such as:
II. Basic Chemistry
A. All matter is composed of ________. Matter is…..?
B. 96% of the material in the human body is composed of:
a. There are _____ major elements.
b. There are _____ trace elements.
C. Atoms:
a. Subatomic Particles
b. Significance of valence electrons….
D. Compounds:
E. Molecules:
III. Chemical Bonds
A. Ionic
B. Covalent
C. Hydrogen
IV. Properties of Water
*Body’s most abundant compound – makes up ~____% of the body’s weight.
*Important in transporting substances in the body.
*Carries waste materials.
*Absorb and transport heat.
A. Strong polarity
B. High specific heat
C. High heat of vaporization
D. Cohesion
V. Electrolytes:
A. Acids
B. Bases
C. pH Scale: Represents the concentrations of_______________
a. 7 =
b. 0-6 =
c. 8-14 =
D. Buffers
VI. Biomolecules
A. Carbohydrates
a. Made from: _________________ (simple sugars), _______________, and _________________
(complex sugars)
b. Structure:
i. Contain the elements:
ii. Monosaccharides form short carbon chains
1. ex: ____________ chemical formula:___________
c. Function:
i. Provides __________ for cellular activities
ii. Structural role in _____ and _____
B. Lipids
a. Include ________, ________________, steroids and _____________.
b. Water insoluble
c. Fats/Triglycerides
i. Structure:
ii. Function:
d. Phospholipids
i. Structure:
ii. Function:
e. Steroids
i. Ex: Cholesterol – found in _______________, provides stabilization for the cell.
ii. Other steroids in the body include:
C. Proteins
a. Have a wide range of functions in the body such as:
b. Building blocks of proteins are:
c. Enzymes:
D. Nucleic Acids:
a. Form genes and take part in __________ synthesis
b. Building block of nucleic acids:
i. Structure of nucleotide:
c. Two major types:
VII. Metabolism
A. Metabolism: All the chemical reactions that take place in our body’s cells
a. Catabolism: Chemical reaction that ___________ large molecules into smaller units. This type of
reaction __________ energy. Also called a __________ reaction because a water molecule is added
for the reaction to occur.
b. Anabolism: Chemical reaction that __________ smaller molecules to form __________ molecules
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). This type of reaction _________ energy, usually in the
form of ______. Also called a _______________ reaction because a water molecule is removed
during the reaction.