Redefining Accounting Research and Education Andreas I Nicolaou Professor, BGSU Editor-in-Chief, IJAIS 2013 Conference Program 15th Annual Accounting Information Systems Educators Conference Agenda • Pre-define Agenda • Consider Future Research/Professional Foci • Who we are (epistemologically) and what is AIS research? • Beyond the “what”, the “how” and “why” • More on the “why:” AIS research themes • AIS Research and Education AIS and the Future • AIS critical nature for the future – both for students and faculty. • AISs critical nature have to consider their effects for event impacts. Future Research Foci • Research questions of data assurance and control, and how these affect AIS intentions to use and success. • Use of integrated information systems and effects on management control system design. • Information quality and control transparency in "interorganizational data exchange systems" and implications for the coordination and control of strategic inter-firm relationships. • Processes of trust/distrust creation and risk perceptions in the design, adoption and longitudinal use of inter-organizational information exchanges. • Enterprise Systems and AIS Design: performance, methods, real options. Future Academic/Professionally Foci • Consider effects to both academic and professionals. • Effects very important to professionals. • Effects important to exercise technology, but also to better use IT. What is AIS Research? • Information technology implications of accounting; control and reporting implications of information systems. • Research to enhance our understandings of the role of information technology in the substantive context of accounting and information systems problems. • At the inter-relations of the above. 6 AIS Research Contributions • Research not a unitary activity – must constantly question its assumptions so it expands its conceptual understandings and methodological bases. • AIS is a specialty field, but its research contributions should not be isolated in a specific area. • AIS research both draws from as well contributes to substantive knowledge in its primary cognate domains of accounting and information systems. 7 Research Space • Intellectual map of reality – Risk is in knowing where map is wrong and knowing consequences – “Platonic Fold” (Taleb 2007) • Key Parameters (Benthon et al 2002): Research Space = def (problem, theory, method, context) 8 Research Aims • Research Replication… – Significant sameness across studies – Focus should be on robustness to errors than improving predictions. – Not just taxonomic errors but errors that could have serious and cumulative consequences (errors of inclusion/exclusion – type I/II errors) • Research Extension… – Alter some parameters • Research (knowledge) Generation… – All parameters are changed relative to target study. • RESEARCH PROGRAMS 9 Unique AIS research opportunities? • AIS/IT and: – – – – – – – Assurance Control systems design Business value Reporting User behavior Transparency Relationship (risk) management – Economics – etc • AIS and: – – – – – – Strategy Modeling Design Business Reporting User behavior Organizational sociology (trust, risk) – Individual beliefs – Economics – etc 10 AIS Research Lens • Design of AIS (design science) • Economic value of IT (economic theory) • Individual, organizational, society impacts (behavioral theory, sociology) • Individual and organizational adoption and use (organization theory) • Strategic management, formulation, transformation 11 Multiple theories, multiple methods • Theories – Economic complementarity/ information processing/fit – Org. learning (knowledge management, absorptive capacity…) – Institutional (processes of legitimation & isomorphism) – Org. sociology (social cognition; social exchange) – Actor-Network – Agency – Real/digital options • Research Questions: – Design science – Economic – Behavioral • Methods – Experimental – Analytical – Archival (qualitative, quantitative) – Field research – Case / critical 12 Current Issues • IT Audit and Governance • Enterprise Systems, data and extended enterprise • Knowing-based decision aids • I-O Data Assurance • Business Value and effects on information environment. IT Audit and Governance • Continuous audit research, methods and redesign of audit model. – Significant new work in continuous work & process mining in auditing -IT Governance and Controls/COBIT model – Significant instructional material • Information security and privacy (HCI research; GDSS) Enterprise Systems, data, and extended enterprises - REA – modeling system design – Organizational Impacts of enterprise systems (business value) – Impacts on role of management accounting and audit professionals – Extended enterprise: I-O issues related to ERM, cost management, cooperative & coopetitive strategies, B2b links/risks and supply chain relationships. Knowledge Management • XBRL/experimental research. • Knowledge-based aids in financial analysis. • Decision aids in controlling decision processes and work methods (Dowling; Dowling & Leech; Poh-Seow; etc). I-O Data Assurance -Earlier work in information quality in accounting systems and effects on intention to use. - IQ models: MIT team; Nicolaou 1995 -IQ in B2B data exchange settings (N&M) – experimental research in IS but with sig. implications in AIS: • Model of trust and risk in inter-organizational exchange systems: adoption and individual user impacts (theory bases) • Longitudinal experiments • Theory base of social exchange and social cognition to study across-time stability of varying system design features - Data Assurance effects as substitute for third-party assurance (accounting profession largely unsuccessful as third-party assurance provider). Business Value of IT and effect on a Firm’s Information Environment – ERP systems and effects on firms’ performance – Extensions to intermediate effects: information quality (analyst projections), organizational commitment to post-implementation continuous improvement and performance. – Organizational factors on adoption and assimilation of technology (Elbashir et al). – Post-implementation effectiveness (Nicolaou; Nicolaou and Bhattacharya; Nicolaou et al) Research Interests and Implications AIS Research Themes vs Findings Research Themes vs. Research Implications • IT/MCS Interactions: Bundles • Integrated Information Systems, Management Control Systems of Features in MCS design. Design, and Effects on • Enterprise Systems: individual Alliance Risks, Partner Trust, and and organizational impacts Performance. • ERM and SEM: conditions of • Enterprise Systems use Implementation, Use and • Technology adoption/use: Performance: Research Findings organization theory; inter• A Research Program on Interorganizational relations Organizational Data Exchanges: • Continuous Issues of Assurance, Data assurance/monitoring: Quality, Exchange Trust, Risk, technology-use mediation and Performance. Theoretical Themes vs. Findings Empirical Research Findings from Empirical Research Integrated Information Systems, Management Control Systems Design, and Effects on Alliance Risks, Partner Trust, and Performance Strategic Inter-Organizational Alliances Prevalence of alliances: Competition between organizations is increasingly driven by global alliances of firms as opposed to individual firms (Buhman et al. 2005; Chapman and Corso 2005; Langfield-Smith 2008). Types: Interorganizational exchanges include both business alliances (entity or non-entity) and joint ventures (Chalos and O’Connor 2004; Das and Teng 2000; Ireland, Hitt and Vaidyanath 2002). Strategic Alliances Strategic alliances as networks of interorganizational relationships (Chua and Mahama 2007). 22 Alliance Success and Failure Past research shows a large number of alliances fail or break-up prematurely. Reasons for alliance failure include: lack of partner cooperation (Harrigan 1988; Zaheer and Venkatraman 1995) misfits in the adopted governance structure (Gulati 1995; Parkhe 1993;Young-Ybarra and Wiersema 1999; Zaheer and Venkatraman 1995). deficiencies in management accounting and control systems (Chua and Mahama 2007) – specifically, lack of trust (an important informal control among exchange partners) No adequate control of associated risks (Bensaou and Anderson 1999), including both relational and performance risks (Das and Teng). 23 Integrated Information Systems Management Control Systems: Efficient packages (portfolios) of formal and informal forms of control (Chenhall, 2003; Abernethy & Chua; Malmi & Brown; Dekker 2004) Integrated Systems (ERPs) as formal means of control (Granlund & Malmi; Chapman & Kihn, etc.). Information Systems Integration (ISI) a form of information sharing that results from use of integrated systems in alliances (Nicolaou 2008) 24 Broad Research Questions IIS, when used in tandem with efficient portfolio of controls, may enhance performance A generalizable view of the interrelation between MCS and IIS still lacking (various authors). Need to examine how ISI fits into alliance control environment: Formal and informal controls used to mitigate relational and performance risks ISI and Alliance Partner Trust ISI Trust Alliance Performance (and survival) ISI Risks Alliance Performance Strategic ERM ISI, Risks 25 Implications and Future Research Fills an important gap about the effects of information systems integration on trust Findings can help design better control systems—e.g. attributions can be influenced (control/coordination info uses are choice variables in I-O governance) Need to further examine how ISI fits into overall alliance control environment - controls used to mitigate both performance risk and risk of opportunistic behavior by the partner (relational risk) – Das and Teng 1999, 2001. Implications Formalized structures moderate extent and impact of both: ISI: limit extent to which ISI can be exploited opportunistically or dictate cooperative uses of IIS Risk Sharing: established reporting structures may either enhance communication of information about attainment of objectives or limit effectiveness of common objectives in reducing alliance risks. How ISI and Risk Sharing fit into Alliance Control Environment and theoretical framework of their effects. Unanswered Questions for Future Research: Relations between Strategic and Executional Dimensions of ERM strategy at the I-O level. 27 28 Extended Network Alliance Appropriation Risk Realization Integrated Information Technology (IIT) Alliance Risk Mgt Contingency Enterprise-Wide Risk Integration (ERI) 29 Alliance Information Sharing (AIS) Perceived Alliance Trust Alliance Contractual Controls Alliance Coordination Risk Realization Alliance Performance Selected Publications NICOLAOU & CHRIST. 2013. “INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS, RISK SHARING AND EFFECTS OF RISK ON ALLIANCE PERFORMANCE.” REVIEW AT ACCOUNTING, ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIETY (AOS). RP38. NICOLAOU, A.I., SEDATOLE, K. AND LANKTON, N. 2011. “INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ALLIANCE PARTNER TRUST.” CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH. VOL. 28, ISSUE 3, FALL 2011, PP. 1018-1045. RP37. NICOLAOU, A.I. 2011. “INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND INTERORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS DESIGN.” ADVANCES IN ACCOUNTING BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH, VOL. 14, AUGUST 2011, PP. 117-141. RP36. NICOLAOU, A.I. 2011. “SUPPLY OF DATA ASSURANCE IN ELECTRONIC EXCHANGES AND USER EVALUATION OF RISK AND PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES.” ELECTRONIC MARKETS - THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ON NETWORKED BUSINESS, VOLUME 21, 2011, PP. 113127. “INFORMATION SHARING IN INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL ALLIANCES: THE ROLE OF IT CAPABILITY AND RISK MANAGEMENT CONTINGENCIES.” UNDER REVIEW. RP33. IBRAHIM, M. AND NICOLAOU, A.I. 2011. “AN EXAMINATION OF FAMILIARITY, RISK AND TRUST IN INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL DATA EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIPS” (2011). AMERICAS CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS (AMCIS) 2011 PROCEEDINGS – ALL SUBMISSIONS, PAPER 57, HTTP://AISEL.AISNET.ORG/AMCIS2011_SUBMISSIONS/57 (DETROIT, MICHIGAN), AUGUST 2011. 1. NICOLAOU, A.I., P. NAGPAL, AND K. LYYTINEN. “THE OUTSOURCING CAPABILITY AND MARKET VALUE RELEVANCE: TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL.” INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS IN ACCOUNTING, FINANCE AND MANAGEMENT. - CONDITIONALLY ACCEPTED. 30 ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION AND USE: RESEARCH FINDINGS Initial Question Financial performance effects due to adoption of ERP systems – a coarse question trying to determine IT value. Sample: 247 ERP adopting firms identified from Lexis/Nexis announcements and SEC Disclosure database. One-by-one match (by industry and size) with non-adopting firms Control for contemporaneous events Early results Before ERP adoption, no differences in key performance indicators (ROA, ROS, TAX, #employees/sales, Inventory turns, COGS/sales) between adopt/match firms. In 2 years after ERP Adoption, adopting firms had shown some weak improvements (cogs/sales) vs non-adopting firms. Motivation – Take 1 Quite mixed results in prior studies examining ERP system performance effects. Non-adopters may perform worse than adopters but this may depend on size and health prior to implementation. Adopters do not outperform non-adopters or even performed worse. SAP adopters had better average performance during implementation, but no results on a postimplementation basis. Need for research on long-run impact, using more representative sample of ERP adopters. A.I. Nicolaou: Firm Performance Effects in ERP Implementation & Use 34 Motivation – Take 2 ERP Systems serve as basis to develop information infrastructure and allow future expansion (CRM, SCM, e-bus): Performance benefits are long term. Both recent case research and archival studies suggest that implementation process is critical to develop capabilities and transform such competencies into future economic returns. Need to examine influence of ERP implementation management process on realized long-term returns. A.I. Nicolaou: Firm Performance Effects in ERP Implementation & Use 35 Overall Results Any significant ERP effect on a firm’s total return on investment does not occur for at least two years from the time the system is completed and put into operation. Implementation factors are quite significant in affecting an ERP adopting firm’s ability to realize performance outcomes. Implementing a system from a larger vendor, having system-led objectives, and implementing a specific type of module, all had a significant influence on a firm’s ability to generate enhanced returns in relation to other firms that followed a different implementation strategy. Suggest critical importance of managing a firm’s post-implementation process (case studies in Nicolaou 2004). Post-Implementation Journey Quality of system development process affects outcomes after the implementation and use of the system. Post-implementation stage (system review, support, maintenance) critical for system effectiveness. Post-implementation review (PIR) evaluates system and quality of development process. Effectiveness of feedback depends on quality of development process, thus PIR construct cannot be considered independently of factors that affect initial system implementation. Motivation - Objective PIR: a summative evaluation process (vs. formative evaluation conducted during implementation). PIR: have objectives been attained? Stage models describe activities – helpful in planning future actions. Need to explain issues that contribute to PIR process effectiveness: objective of this research. Especially important in ERP systems (large investments, lagging benefits). Outcomes of high quality PIR include cultural and organizational shifts, business transformation in post-ERP era. 38 Critical Factors of ERP Implementation & Corresponding PIR Dimensions Critical Factors of ERP Implementation Critical Dimensions of PIR - Top management support and commitment to project; fit to business strategy. - Evaluation of: - Alignment of people, process, - Review of fit resolution strategies. - fit with strategic vision. -project planning effectiveness. - - infrastructure development. technology. - Evaluation of system integration attainment and reporting flexibility. - Anticipated Benefits from ERP - Evaluation of level of attainment of - Motivation behind ERP - Review of driving principles for implementation project. implementation (business- vs. systemled). - Scope of user training. expected system benefits. project. - Review of project justification practices. - Review of user learning. - Evaluation of effective knowledge transfer (among project team members and other users). PIR Quality Defined by the extent to which an organization carries out a planned review that includes the set of activities implied by the five PIR dimensions. PIR dimensions are complementary to one another; their cumulative effect should influence outcomes. PIR Quality: an important condition for ERP implementation effectiveness. PIR Quality an important construct that should be included in models examining ERP/IT effectiveness (e.g., outcome paradoxes). Future research: Operationalize and measure PIR Quality concept. 40 Findings Our results show that early post-implementation activities as defined by project planning, strategic definition and process integration have a positive financial performance differential effect on firms’ incremental ROI, ROS, the cost of goods sold over sales ratio, and the employee efficiency ratio. Importance on PIR activities which contribute to better system implementation planning and business process effectiveness. Activities that relate to system deployment effectiveness (system fit resolution, global reach, attaining benefits), however, do not exhibit similar effects. In fact this PIR factor significantly contributes to deterioration in differential financial performance relating to ROS and the employee efficiency ratio. Efforts to effectively deploy the system and realize benefits necessitate additional investments which may have a negative impact on a firm’s short-run 41 profitability. PIR Activities and Managerial Flexibility PIR activities: only observable events post-implementation. Not inherent in ERP adoption choices – but they are value adding, have effect on future success. Management should anticipate future changes; active anticipation of needed changes builds in flexibility in future system enhancement actions. Motivation We conduct a longitudinal study of ERPS project decision-making from a real options perspective. The real options logic applies as ERPS implementation and longterm use involve high risk of failure. ERP project can be viewed as a portfolio of real options. All real options are context-specific (no common-value instruments exist as in financing options) –have different value to different companies. Initial adoption of ERPS as a strategic/growth option ERPS provide new opportunities for future strategic initiatives Post-implementation Decision Choices in ERPS: In particular, enhancements (additions and upgrades), can increase (reduce) the potential for gains (losses) on the base project We examine system enhancements in post-implementation period as operational options that can modify the businessvalue of the system Contribution Models ERPS adoption and enhancement as two separate and distinct, yet related, decisions on the exercise of real options in a continuous implementation process. Various option types (defer, pilot, prototype, stage, abandon, contract, and outsource) presented in different IT projects. Prior research offers little insights into the specific real options presented in large IT projects such as ERPS and their management. Uniqueness of ERPS—Expensive, irreversible, modular, and long-term We document systematic evidence that supports the adoption of the real options lens in real world ERPS project management, not in purely intuitive manner. We find that the benefits obtained from the initial ERPS adoption and from well-planned high-quality PIR activities explain a significant portion of the variation in postimplementation enhancement choices. Selected Publications “The Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems on the Audit Report Lag.” - Revised and Resubmit under JETA RP46. J. Chao, A. I. Nicolaou, and S. Bhattacharya. 2013. “A Longitudinal Study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems Adoption and Post-Implementation Enhancement Decisions.” Journal of Information Systems, Spring 2013. RP31. Nicolaou, A.I. 2008. “Research Issues on the Use of ERPS in InterOrganizational Relationships.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Vol. 9, No. 4, December 2008, pp. 216-226. RP29. Nicolaou, A.I. and S. Bhattacharya. 2008. “Sustainability in ERP Performance Impacts: The Role of Post-Implementation Review Quality.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, March 2008, 43-60. RP25. Nicolaou, A.I. and S. Bhattacharya. 2006. “Organizational Performance Effects of ERP Systems Usage: The Impact of Post-Implementation Changes.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Volume 7, Number 1, Spring 2006, pp. 18-35. RP23. Nicolaou, A.I. 2004. “Firm Performance Effects in Relation to the Implementation and Use of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems.” Journal of Information Systems, Volume 18, No. 2, Fall 2004, pp. 79-105. RP21. Nicolaou, A.I. 2004. “Quality of Post-Implementation Review for Enterprise Resource Planning Systems.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Volume 5, No. 1, May 2004, pp. 25-49. 45 A RESEARCH PROGRAM ON INTERORGANIZATIONAL DATA EXCHANGES: ISSUES OF ASSURANCE, DATA QUALITY, EXCHANGE TRUST, RISK, AND PERFORMANCE Research Project Development Begun in 2002 examining effects of “data assurance” in e-commerce settings – implications for system design, real-time controls as a form of assurance (substitute to 3rd party assurances), continuous monitoring. Varied “control transparency” and “outcome feedback” manipulations in various versions of a simulated web exchange. Spot transactions (I-O system design) Ehub exchanges (3rd party continuous vs static assurances) http://www.business.bgsu.edu/faculty_staff/Nicolaou/XMLproject /indexA.cfm Issues in IORs Relational/Information Sharing Opportunism vs coordination-cooperation Information sharing and trust Uncertainty/sources of Risk in exchange itself (e.g., outcome) or in structures surrounding use Time/Embeddedness Different issues at relationship inception and as relationship progresses. Data Exchanges: role of IOS system design and data quality (PIQ) on IOS Adoption I-O exchanges Spot B2B exchanges – Most notably, 2006 ISR study found that system design interventions affect users’ perceptions of information quality. Contributing to IOS literature, PIQ was found to affect use continuance intentions, but mediated by assessments of partner trust and perceptions of risk (outcome risk) in the exchange. Other studies: decomposed trust/risk constructs, and transaction performance relationships E-hubs and professional assurance services (IJAIS, 2006) General vs Specific Assurance over reliability of exchange system (professional assurance report) Users more likely to recommend use of the exchange when general assurance is present than when specific assurance over the reliability of transaction information is present. Coordination vs motivation/appropriation costs in economic exchanges – implying importance of trust …. Continuous vs Static Assurance Report More likely to recommend using the exchange when the assurance report is continuous… However, …. E-hubs…cont’d Other factors, especially trust in the trading partner, have stronger influence on usage intentions than the presence of either continuous or systems assurance (indirectly corroborates findings of other studies that control transparency and PIQ effects are mediated by trust/risk perceptions). Redesign existing assurance services to provide continuous assurance, de-emphasizing formalized reports, and consider contemporaneous effects of such factors as web site design over assurance services. Underlying Theories Economics B2b relationship success contingent on ability of IT to reduce transaction costs (coordination / motivation costs) Improved PIQ enables coordination mechanisms that induce market rather than hierarchical structures (implications for alliances & use of IIS in IORs). Social networks – structural relationships IOS adoption related to embeddedness: partner trust, info sharing, joint problem solving. Organization theory Contingency perspectives: IP needs (driven by task, partner, environment uncertainty) & IP capabilities match. Initial Adoption vs Longitudinal Use All of the above used one-time use of simulated web exchange and survey of constructs (DVs). Time/embeddedness of relationships could vary importance of model relationships Theorizes and tests the sustainable effects of perceived information quality (PIQ) on both Intent to Use and Supplier Performance DVs. Examines trust and distrust in the exchange environment across time. Distrust: negative side of trust equation. Distinct effects from trust and risk, especially across time. Examines effects of control transparency and confirming/disconfirming outcome feedback over time. Research Model Overview (identical model at T1 and T2) Risk Propensity Perceived Risk System Design Interventions: - Control Transparency - Confirming (positive) Outcome Feedback Supplier Performance Perceived Information Quality Distrusting Beliefs - Disconfirming (negative) outcome feedback Intention to Use Disposition to Distrust Trusting Beliefs Disposition to Trust Structural Assurance Theoretical Underpinnings Economic Exchange (e.g., Williamson, 1975) Assumes risk, moral hazard, opportunism Suspicion of the other over trust of the other Strong need for controls, structural assurance Social Exchange (e.g., Blau, 1964) Assumes goodwill, reciprocal obligations Ties and trust build slowly by interaction Develop norms of cooperation, sharing Both theories have limitations Safeguards and deterrents of opportunism can operate alongside trust; inter-personal and I-O relationships are not always harmonious, as SET expects. Social Cognition (Fiske and Taylor 1991) How system design features are evaluated over time Belief updating over time Negative information treated differently than positive information (attribution via lens of goal-oriented objectives) Risk Propensity System Design Interventions: - Control Transparency - Confirming (positive) Outcome Feedback Perceived Risk Supplier Performance Perceived Information Quality Distrusting Beliefs - Disconfirming (negative) outcome feedback INTENT TO USE Disposition to Distrust Disposition to Trust Significant at both time periods: Significant at T1 but not at T2: Significant at T2 but not at T1: Non-Significant link at either time period: TRUSTING BELIEF Structural Assurance Selected Publications “An Examination of Trust, Perceived Risk, and Distrust and their Effects on Data Exchange Performance: A Two Period Study.” With D. H. McKnight, Michigan State University. RP41. Nicolaou, C.A., A.I. Nicolaou and G.D. Nicolaou. 2012. “Auditing in the Cloud: Challenges and Opportunities.” CPA Journal, Vol. LXXXII (82), January 2012, pp. 66-70. RP39. Nicolaou, Andreas I. and D. Harrison McKnight. 2011. “System Design Features and Repeated Use of Electronic Data Exchanges.” Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 28, No. 2, Fall 2011, pp. 271-307. RP27. Nicolaou, A.I. and D. H. McKnight. 2006. “Perceived Information Quality in Data Exchanges: Effects on Risk, Trust and Intention to Use.” Information Systems Research, Vol. 17, No. 4, December 2006, pp 332-351. RP26. Kovar, S., Nicolaou, A.I., and Mauldin, E. 2006. “The Influence of Content and Timing of Reliability Assurance in B2B e-Commerce.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2006, pp. 115-129. RP18. Nicolaou, A.I. 2003. “Manufacturing Strategy Implementation and Cost Management Systems Effectiveness.” European Accounting Review Vol. 12, No. 1, May 2003, pp. 175-199. RP15. Nicolaou, A.I. 2002. “Adoption of Just-In-Time and Electronic Data Interchange Systems and Perceptions of Cost Management Systems Effectiveness.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Volume 3, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 35-62. RP12. Nicolaou, A.I. 2000. “A Contingency Model of Perceived Effectiveness in Accounting Information Systems: Organizational Coordination and Control Effects.” International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, Volume 1 (2), September 2000, pp. 91-105.