Punctuation End Notes • Periods • Question Marks • Exclamation Point Semicolons • Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses not joined by a conjunction. Clauses must directly relate to each other. – My mother works in a school; she does not teach. • Can also be used to separate clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb or transitional expression – A cloudless blue sky dawned that morning; nevertheless, rain was expected. – We needed to fit the whole family around the dinner table; as a result, Dad pulled out the extra leaf. Colon • Used mainly as an introductory device before a list – I bought my father several gifts: a shirt, a tie, and a pair of shorts. • Use to introduce a sentence that summarizes or explains the sentence before it. – His tuna casserole lacked one vital ingredient: He forgot the tuna! • Use to introduce a formal appositive that follows an independent clause. – I missed one important paragraph lesson: writing a topic sentence. Quotation Marks • Use to show a direct quotation – Joey said, “I love ham and cheese sandwiches in the morning!” • Use around titles of short works of literature (short stories, poems, etc.) – “Ambush” – “The Life You Save Could Be Your Own” Underlining • Underline long written works, such as books, plays, periodicals, newspapers, and long poems – The Jungle – The New York Times • Underline movies, t.v. shows, radio shows, paintings, sculptures, and other works of art • Underline the names of individual sea, space, and land craft – USS Alabama Dashes • Used to indicate an abrupt change in thought – I cannot believe I missed that test- oh, I don’t even want to think about it. • Used to set off interrupting ideas dramatically – The slam dunk-the most spectacular shot in basketball- makes a great addition to any highlight film. • To set off a summary statement – To see his jersey hanging from the rafters- this is his greatest dream. Parentheses • Used to set off asides and explanations when the information is not necessary. – Nancy perfected her passing (only after years of practice) and will now begin the year as the starting point guard. • Used to set off numerical expressions – John Smith (1875-1950) was a great teacher. Hyphens • Used to divide certain numbers and words – Ninety-nine – One-half – All-star – Senator-elect • Used in compound words – Well-prepared – Jet-propelled Apostrophe • Used to show possession – Add an ‘s to the end of singular nouns- dog’s; Sarah’s; James’s – Add an ‘ to show possession at the end of plural nouns that end in s or es- moths’; cats’ • Used in contraction – Used to show a missing letter or letters • Are not- aren’t • I am- I’m • ‘03 Commas • With Compound Sentences – Used to separate two independent clauses • We read about Mexico, and then we wrote a report on it. • In A Series – Used to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses • I read the articles, extracts, and books for the final exam. • Mexico has been ruled by the Spanish, by the Mexicans, and by the French. • The bank filled quickly with people who transferred their accounts, who cashed checks, and who opened safe-deposit boxes. Commas (cont.) • Adjectives – Used to separate more than one adjective in a row that modify the same noun or pronoun • The country’s wild, beautiful scenery is an attraction for tourists. – Do not use on adjective that must stay in a specific order • In a few short hours, we will be finished. Commas (cont.) • Introductory Material – Used after an introductory word, phrase, or clause- something that is not necessary • No, I will not go to Mexico with you. • In the deep recesses of the couch, I found the watch that I had lost. • When the steaks were medium rare, we took them off the grill. Commas (cont.) • Parenthetical Statements – Used within a sentence to set off parenthetical statements (word or phrases that interrupts the general flow of the sentence). • Kim, in my opinion, is the best candidate for the job. • I know that you want to stay, Don, but you have to go home. • Nonessential Expression – Used within a sentence to set off nonessential expression • John, who is holding the book, is going on a trip to Mexico. Commas (the end) • Location – Used to separate a location with two or more parts • Atlanta, GA • Dates – Used to separate the different portions of a date • April 18, 2006 • Titles – Used to separate a name and a title that follows the name • I noticed that Jeremy McGuire, Sr., is a partner in this firm. • Addresses – Separate each part of an address • 1433 North Street, Hello, Nevada 13212 Commas (really the end) • Salutations and Closings – Used after a salutation and closing in a letter • Dear Rupert, • Sincerely, • Numbers – Used after every third digit in a number with more than three digits • 1, 233, 890 • Quotations – Used to set off a quotation from the rest of the sentence • The guest asked, “Do you know of any nearby grocery stores that are open all night?” • Clarity – Used to help a sentence from being misunderstood • She studied French, as well as Mayan art.