End Notes
• Periods
• Question Marks
• Exclamation Point
• Use a semicolon to separate two independent
clauses not joined by a conjunction. Clauses
must directly relate to each other.
– My mother works in a school; she does not teach.
• Can also be used to separate clauses that are
joined by a conjunctive adverb or transitional
– A cloudless blue sky dawned that morning;
nevertheless, rain was expected.
– We needed to fit the whole family around the dinner
table; as a result, Dad pulled out the extra leaf.
• Used mainly as an introductory device before a list
– I bought my father several gifts: a shirt, a tie, and a pair of
• Use to introduce a sentence that summarizes or
explains the sentence before it.
– His tuna casserole lacked one vital ingredient: He forgot
the tuna!
• Use to introduce a formal appositive that follows an
independent clause.
– I missed one important paragraph lesson: writing a topic
Quotation Marks
• Use to show a direct quotation
– Joey said, “I love ham and cheese sandwiches in
the morning!”
• Use around titles of short works of literature
(short stories, poems, etc.)
– “Ambush”
– “The Life You Save Could Be Your Own”
• Underline long written works, such as books,
plays, periodicals, newspapers, and long poems
– The Jungle
– The New York Times
• Underline movies, t.v. shows, radio shows,
paintings, sculptures, and other works of art
• Underline the names of individual sea, space, and
land craft
– USS Alabama
• Used to indicate an abrupt change in thought
– I cannot believe I missed that test- oh, I don’t even
want to think about it.
• Used to set off interrupting ideas dramatically
– The slam dunk-the most spectacular shot in
basketball- makes a great addition to any highlight
• To set off a summary statement
– To see his jersey hanging from the rafters- this is his
greatest dream.
• Used to set off asides and explanations when
the information is not necessary.
– Nancy perfected her passing (only after years of
practice) and will now begin the year as the
starting point guard.
• Used to set off numerical expressions
– John Smith (1875-1950) was a great teacher.
• Used to divide certain numbers and words
– Ninety-nine
– One-half
– All-star
– Senator-elect
• Used in compound words
– Well-prepared
– Jet-propelled
• Used to show possession
– Add an ‘s to the end of singular nouns- dog’s;
Sarah’s; James’s
– Add an ‘ to show possession at the end of plural
nouns that end in s or es- moths’; cats’
• Used in contraction
– Used to show a missing letter or letters
• Are not- aren’t
• I am- I’m
• ‘03
• With Compound Sentences
– Used to separate two independent clauses
• We read about Mexico, and then we wrote a report on it.
• In A Series
– Used to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses
• I read the articles, extracts, and books for the final exam.
• Mexico has been ruled by the Spanish, by the Mexicans, and by
the French.
• The bank filled quickly with people who transferred their accounts,
who cashed checks, and who opened safe-deposit boxes.
Commas (cont.)
• Adjectives
– Used to separate more than one adjective in a row
that modify the same noun or pronoun
• The country’s wild, beautiful scenery is an attraction for
– Do not use on adjective that must stay in a specific
• In a few short hours, we will be finished.
Commas (cont.)
• Introductory Material
– Used after an introductory word, phrase, or
clause- something that is not necessary
• No, I will not go to Mexico with you.
• In the deep recesses of the couch, I found the watch
that I had lost.
• When the steaks were medium rare, we took them off
the grill.
Commas (cont.)
• Parenthetical Statements
– Used within a sentence to set off parenthetical
statements (word or phrases that interrupts the
general flow of the sentence).
• Kim, in my opinion, is the best candidate for the job.
• I know that you want to stay, Don, but you have to go home.
• Nonessential Expression
– Used within a sentence to set off nonessential
• John, who is holding the book, is going on a trip to Mexico.
Commas (the end)
• Location
– Used to separate a location with two or more parts
• Atlanta, GA
• Dates
– Used to separate the different portions of a date
• April 18, 2006
• Titles
– Used to separate a name and a title that follows the name
• I noticed that Jeremy McGuire, Sr., is a partner in this firm.
• Addresses
– Separate each part of an address
• 1433 North Street, Hello, Nevada 13212
Commas (really the end)
• Salutations and Closings
– Used after a salutation and closing in a letter
• Dear Rupert,
• Sincerely,
• Numbers
– Used after every third digit in a number with more than three digits
• 1, 233, 890
• Quotations
– Used to set off a quotation from the rest of the sentence
• The guest asked, “Do you know of any nearby grocery stores that are open all
• Clarity
– Used to help a sentence from being misunderstood
• She studied French, as well as Mayan art.