Biology Midterm Review
1. How are theories made and why are they important? (You have to go through the scientific
method in depth to explain what a theory is) Vocab: experimental method, hypothesis,
independent variable, dependent variable, control, data, analysis, conclusion
2. When a scientist designs a space probe to detect life on a distant planet, what kinds of things
should it measure? (Think about the characteristics of life)
3. Use the example of a bird to explain what the function is for EACH major macromolecule
discussed. Be specific. Vocab: carbohydrate, lipid, nucleic acid, protein
4. Why are the cytoplasm, cell membrane and DNA common to ALL cell types?
5. During the winter months, the road crews put salt on the road to help melt ice and snow. Explain
why (using the concept of OSMOSIS) the grass closest to the road is dead and the grass furthest
away is alive. Vocab: hypertonic, hypotonic, equilibrium, osmosis
6. Explain which organelles are responsible for making a protein in a cell. Start from the beginning
and discuss each step. Vocab: nucleus, DNA, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi
apparatus, vacuole, cytoplasm, protein
7. Organism A is an autotroph. Organism B is a heterotroph. Explain how EACH organism RECEIVES
its energy in the form of food (glucose). Be detailed. Then explain how EACH organism breaks
down that food (glucose) to give its cells energy. Be detailed. Vocab: Photosynthesis, cellular
respiration, light reaction, calvin cycle, autotroph, heterotroph, ATP
8. When you get a cut your skin cells must reproduce in order to replace the skin. It is crucial that
every new cell that is made have the same DNA as the rest of your body. Explain in detail how your
body makes sure that every new cell receives the same DNA. Vocab: Mitosis, prophase,
metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis, interphase, DNA
9. Explain why you would never look identical to your sibling even though you have the same
parents. Also, explain why this variation is so important to populations. Vocab: meiosis, crossing
over, independent assortment, genetic variation, evolution,
10. Explain in detail why you get cramps when you run too hard. Vocab: cellular respiration, energy,
fermentation, products, reactants