Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 constitutes one of the major turning points of American foreign policy. Generations of American presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to John Kennedy to Ronald Reagan have invoked it in putting forward foreign policies designed to keep "foreign" influences out of the Western Hemisphere. Yet, at the time, it was not recognized as such. It put forward no new foreign-policy principles, nor was it even referred to as the "Monroe Doctrine" until the 1850s. As presented to Congress on December 2, 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was made up of three parts. The first part dealt with noncolonization and was primarily directed at Russia. In 1821 Moscow had issued a warning to other states not to come within 100 miles of Russian America (Alaska). This edict was interpreted as evidence of renewed Russian interest in pushing the southern boundary of Alaska deep into the Oregon country, thus establishing a Russian colonial presence in North America. The next section dealt with the possibility of European interference in the Americas. Monroe warned the European monarchies that the United States would view "any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to [its] peace and safety." He continued, "[W]e could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny . . . in any other light as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States." Monroe concluded that the policy of the United States continued to be one of not interfering in the internal concerns of any European power. European powers reacted with displeasure, terming the statement arrogant and blustering. Great Britain reacted with a mixture of support and muted anger. The British had been working on their own to ensure that France would take no action against the former Spanish colonies in the Americas. For their part the newly independent states of Latin America responded with caution. May, Ernest. The Making of the Monroe Doctrine. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975. Smith, Gaddis. The Last Years of the Monroe Doctrine, 1945–1994. New York: Hill and Wang, 1994.