Extraction of metals

Reaction of Metals
1. Some metals react with;
• Water – producing metal hydroxides
and hydrogen
• Acids – producing metal salts and
• Air – producing metal oxides
Reactions of Metals
Reactivity Series
1. In the reactivity series of metals, the
most reactive metals are put at the top
and the least reactive at the bottom
2. The reactivity series can be
determined by looking at the relative
reactivity of metals with air, water and
Reactivity Series
Reactivity Series
Displacement reactions
1. A more reactive metal can displace a
less reactive metal from its compound
2. Non-metal elements carbon and
hydrogen can also displace less
reactive metals form oxides of those
Displacement Reactions
Reduction using carbon
1. Some unreactive metals are found in
their natural state (e.g. gold)
2. Often metals are found as metal oxides
3. To extract the metal, the oxygen must
be removed from the metal oxide
4. This is called reduction
5. Metals below carbon in the reactivity
series can be extracted by heating with
Reduction using carbon
Reduction using carbon
The Blast Furnace
1. Iron can be extracted from iron ore in
the blast furnace
2. The raw materials are iron ore, coke
(carbon), and limestone
3. Hot air is used to convert carbon to
carbon monoxide
4. Carbon monoxide reduces iron oxide
to iron
5. Limestone reacts with impurities (e.g.
sand) to produce molten slag
The Blast Furnace
Removing impurities
The Blast Furnace
1. Metals above carbon in the reactivity
series are extracted using electrolysis
2. Electrolysis is the process of splitting
up compounds using electricity
3. Electrolysis only works if the
substance is molten or dissolved (so
the ions are free to move)
4. Positively charged ions (cations) move
to the cathode, negatively charged
ions (anions) move to the anode
Purifying copper
Electrolysis of Aluminium Oxide
Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride
1. Sodium Chloride (common salt) is
found in the sea and in underground
2. Electrolysis of sodium chloride
solution produces chlorine at the
anode, hydrogen at the cathode and
sodium hydroxide solutions
3. Chlorine bleaches damp litmus paper
4. Each product has important uses
Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride
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