Perception & map design

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PERCEPTION & MAP
DESIGN
Ntshate Athenkosi 216032865
Gregory Crichton 216141222
INTRODUCTION
• Maps are representations of reality as described through the map
maker for map user
• Each party has a different perspective
• Maps display the map maker’s objective
• Narrowed down from an initial idea
• Multiple, often conflicting, objectives are needed
• To portray the objective clearly, maps must be legible
• Modern amps are shaped by traditions used as guidelines
• Maps that stray from these guidelines are often of poor quality
INTRODUCTION
• The initial planning of the map involves taking reality, creating an
image from the map makers perspective, moulding this image
through methods and generalisation to form a map that allows the
user to create an image from reading and analysing the map
(Robinson et al,1955 and ESRI,2016)
• This explains where the different perceptions of reality from the
two parties come into play. The relationship between map making
and map use
INTRODUCTION
http://gis.depaul.edu/shwang/teaching/geog258/lec2.htm
INTRODUCTION
• Perceptions
• Map Maker
• Objectives of a map
• Scale
• Large
• Small
• generalisation
• Map User
• Legibility
• Distinction
Boden (2009) Robinson et al (1955) and ESRI (2016)
• Design
• Rules of graphic
representation
• Elements of a map
• Map Projections
• Understanding data
• Final product
•
•
•
•
•
Legible
Generalised
Repeatable
Method evident
Clear explanation of symbols
OUTCOMES
• To understand the thought process to creating a map
• Understand the scientific method and artistic creativity behind map
design
• Walk through the traditions and conventions of a good quality map
• Understand the difference between maker and user perceptions
MAP MAKER
• The design process begins with an idea (ESRI, 2015)
• An idea of what area needs to be mapped, and what data must be
represented
• Through objectives the data is narrowed down so that the map can
display the map makers idea
• This is down through generalisation, projection and symbolising
data.
• Robinson et al (1955) identifies 3 stages
STAGE 1
•
•
•
•
•
•
This can be seen as the “what section”
What will be mapped
What data will be needed
What information is available
What will be needed
What Scale will be used
• This step is the planning phase. Determining the objectives for the
map.
• Key factors of this step is creative freedom and imaginative brain
storming
STAGE 2
•
•
•
•
This can be the first part of the “how” of map design
How will the data be captured
How will the data be represented
How will the symbols be determined
• Point
• Line
• Area
• This phase of design is centred around creating a graphic plan to
represent the data, how to portray the area while following the set
objectives
• Most of the work is done in this stage
STAGE 3
• This can be seen as the second part of the “how” stage
• How the different layers and categories of data will be set aside from one
another
• How will the symbols be defined
•
•
•
•
•
Size
Shape
Pattern
Hue
Value
• Elements of the map
• This is the finalising stage. Sorting out the final details and display of the
map
PERCEPTIONS OF MAPS
• Perception plays a major role for interpretation or extracting
information from remote sensing data and from thematic maps.
• Is a partly mental, partly physical process in which maps are conceived
and created (a verb) ,The word design can also be a noun.
• A map can have a particular design, but design in this sense is only the
end result of the design process, while each of the various models may
differ in their level of complexity, they all seem to rely on the same
basic parts:
• the real world phenomenon,
• the cartographer’s conception of the phenomenon,
• the design and symbolization of a map based on the cartographer’s
conception, and
• the reader’s perception and interpretation of the resulting map.
STEPS TO COGNITIVE
DESIGN
´âśCartographic design can be seen a process combining aesthetics
with data to represent reality
1. Conceptualization of the map
2. Visualization of the map
3. Construction of the map
4. A partly mental, partly physical process
1.CONCEPTUALIZATION
OF THE MAP
Robinson (1955) describes two schools of thought that have emerged
with the
Behaviorist view
Focuses more on determining which mapping techniques are most
effective, and the reason why they are effective.
Cognitive View
focuses on why certain techniques which are effective by applying
knowledge structures to the ways that people perceive maps.
PRE-CONCEPTION
• Map design starts with an idea on how to graphically represent
reality
• This initial idea, before any research is carried out, will be based on
the map maker’s preconception of the area in question.
• Moving to a new city and not realising how large/small it is
• Jenks (1973) uses a map to represent a preconceived map of the
roads of North Carolina with relation to nearby settlements
• Preconceptions use the knowledge as well as the creativity of the
map maker to produce a rough draft
Road Perception by George Jenks (1973)
• Cognitive map-design research has the goal of understanding
human cognition in order to improve the design and use of maps.
• The term aesthetics derives from the Greek word, which means
perception (Punia,2008).
• The focus of cartography has been centred on visualisation.
Creating a visual image that depicts reality. Punia (2008;585)
describes cartography as a metal process that is facilitated by maps
IMPACT ON VISUALIZATION
• aesthetics for making
• Functionality
• Expression
• In cartography, the final product is a map. Similar to completed
paintings and structures
• Where as design and aesthetics go together in various processes and
the intent of the product, but differ in method and general
applicability. Take an example of the design of a thematic map.
• Attract attention only to the details that are significant in the
subsequent images
USE OF PERCEPTUAL
PROPERTIES IN VISUALIZATION
CONCLUSION
• Maps use graphic representation and creativity to create general
representations of reality, attempting to align the map maker’s
image with the map user’s through clearly defined objectives.
• The symbols on a map allow for users to create an image of the area
in questions, therefore proven traditions and guidelines must be
followed in order for an accurate image to be drawn.
REFERENCES
Arnheim, R. 1954. Art and visual perception: A psychology of the
creative eye. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
Borden, D., Togurson, J. and Hodler, T. 2009. Cartography: Thematic
Map Design, Sixth Edition, 207-222.Boston MA:WCB-McGraw Hill.
Robinson, H., Joel. L., Morrison, C. Muehrcke, A., Kimerling ,J. and
Guptill, S. 1995. Elements of Cartography,Fifth Edition, 324-330.
New York City, NY: John Wiley & Sons,Inc.
Jenks, G. 1967. The data model concept in statistical mapping.
International Yearbook of cartography. Vol.7 no. 1. pp. 186-190
Punia, M. 2008. Cartographic Visualisation and Landscape Modeling. The
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial
Information Sciences. Vol.
37 no. 4. pp. 585-590
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